Yerba measures of mood state during prolonged exercise

Yerba Mate Supplement  Yerba Mate is a plant originating from South America. Mate is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Currently, there are over one million consumers, commercially seen in the United States and Europe. The Mate supplementation claims to have the “strength of coffee” and the “healthy benefits of tea” (Guayaki). Yerba Mate is known to have healthful and beneficial properties such as: twenty-four naturally occurring vitamins and minerals, fifteen amino acids and abundance of antioxidants. Along with being a nutritional powerhouse loaded with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, Mate provides polyphenol properties that provide the body with protection of cells from free radical damage. Yerba mate also is known to have anti-obesity properties, as such a series of clinical trials have concluded that Yerba Mate supplementation decreased body fat mass, percent body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio, therefore suggesting that Mate was a “potent” anti-obesity reagent (Sun-Young Kim, 2015). Most importantly, the limited research suggests promising results of using Yerba Mate supplementation in the method of augmenting fat oxidation and energy expenditure during exercise at various submaximal intensities, along with developing positive effects on metabolic satiety and increased measures of mood state during prolonged exercise bouts. Limited research suggests that there is a strong correlation between enhances in physical endurance and the boost in fatty acid oxidation when physical exercises are maintained under seventy percent of an individual’s oxygen consumption capacity. (******) Recent studies show a promising future in Yerba Mate supplementation in decreasing obesity, diabetes, and enhancing physical endurance.  A clinical trial conducted from the Chonbuk National University Hospital Jeonju, Republic of Korea studied the “efficacy and safety of Yerba Mate supplementation in Korean subjects with obesity” (US National Library of Medicine – Anti-obesity effects of Mate). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with thirty individuals within a twelve-week time-period. Subjects with obesity were elected to participate in the study following the anthropometric measurements of a BMI no less than 25, and a BMI greater than 32 kg/m2, and a waist-to-hip ratio of >0.90 for men, and >0.85 for women. Half the participants were given Yerba Mate capsules and the other fifteen were given placebos. The participants were to take three capsules per each meal, with a total of three times in a day. The study measured the outcomes of efficacy in abdominal fat distribution, anthropometric parameters and lipid blood levels. Along with efficacy, the safety of ingesting Mate capsules in raising heat rate, blood pressure, and other vital signs. As a result of the twelve-week trial, Yerba Mate supplementation showed a significant decrease in body fat mass and percent body fat compared to the placebo-controlled group. Due the epidemic of obesity and overweight individuals, this clinical trial showed promising results as it demonstrated a significant decrease of fat accumulation and decreased serum levels of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and HDL cholesterol levels tended to increase in the Yerba Mate group. This clinical trial revealed that “Mate supplementation was a potent anti-obesity reagent that did not produce any significant adverse effects.” (CITATION INCLUDE) However, because Yerba Mate is a relatively “new” supplement, there still needs to be further research done to account for lifestyle modifications and long-term effects.  In a similar study, produced by the Laboratory Animal Research from the Korean Association for Laboratory Animal Science, demonstrated the effects of Yerba Mate supplementation and anti-diabetic effects in mice fed a high-fat diet. This clinical trial reviewed that Yerba Mate supplementation and its ability to decrease the differentiation of “pre-adipocytes” and the reduction of the accumulation of lipids in the tissue. This study demonstrated the strong effects of reducing growth rates of tissues, and reduction of body weight mass, as a result, showed a reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and glucose concentrations in mice. This suggests that adequate Mate supplementation is correlated to positive effects in glucose levels related to in obese and diabetic individuals (US National Library of Medicine -Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic). Lastly, a study on the Positive effects of Yerba Mate in obesity, from the Laboratory of Microbiology from Sao Francisco University Medical School demonstrated a significant decrease in inflammation, suppression of adipocytes in adipose tissue, and triglyceride accumulation. In a study, conducted from Anderson and Fogh, 2001 a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial illustrated that Mate increased gastric emptying time significantly compared placebo-controlled group along with a reduction of body weight over the ten-day period.  All studies support the strong correlation of Yerba Mate and the healthful benefits in suppressing body weight gain, decreasing serum levels of LDL cholesterol, and normalizing blood glucose levels within an appropriate time-period within administering the supplementation without modifying most of the diet and physical activity levels.  Yerba Mate supplementation has demonstrated promising results in promoting physical endurance in subjects participating in cycling ergometer clinical trials. In the clinical trial conducted, the researchers studied the effects of Mate supplementation in fatty acid oxidation in a prolonged steady-state exercise. Along with measuring fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid oxidation from energy expenditure, the mood state and satiety was measured during and after exercise (Ahmad Alkhatib, 15).  To ensure that all test was performed in a similar setting, the laboratory controlled variables such as the following: air temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, and all procedures were carried out in the same manner each time.  In the double-blind repeated-measure cross-over placebo-controlled design the healthy female participants were instructed to ingest 2 grams of Yerba Mate and rest 120 minutes before performing at their VO2 peak each visit for a two-week period.  As part of the assessment process, indirect calorimetry was used to test for the participants FAO. The assessments demonstrated that with prolonged exercises the “fat-loss” boosts fatty acid oxidation and participants reported improved measures of satiety and mood state. The female participants reported a decrease for prospective eating and desires to eat were all reduced significantly. This study also suggests the potential benefits of increasing measures with focus, energy, and concentration in prolonged exercises. In a study conducted, the researchers tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of the supplementation of Yerba Mate and caffeine containing supplements. The study followed a double-blind crossover repeated measures controlled design, in which participants were asked to rest for 150 minutes in a recumbent position and ingestion of 70 mg of green tea leaf extract and 50 mg of caffeine and 100 mg of Yerba mate. Following ingestion, the participants were asked to perform at their max VO2 or reach their respiratory exchange ratio (RER) according to measurements – and results were measured using an online gas analyzer (Ahmad Alkhatib).  The trial concludes the significant fat oxidation between the participants in the supplements compared to the placebo group. During this time, mood state and hunger scale were also observed. Participants did not see a positive or negative mood change throughout the period of the trial. However, in post-states of exercise, individuals revealed that there was a higher sense of satiety compared to the control group. This study demonstrated a potential short-term effectiveness for ingesting Yerba Mate and caffeine-like supplementation on fat-loss and weight-loss outcomes after a 30-minute rest and during physical exercise at workloads corresponding to their calculate individualized maximum intensities (Ahmad Alkhatib).  Yerba Mate supplementation showed promising short-term results in the reduction of fat mass and weight body mass with implemented prolonged physical exercises. Yerba mate supplementation with physical activity showed significant healthful results in lowering serum LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and regulating glucose levels. Mate supplementation showed promising results that did not result in any adverse effects. However, Mate supplementation and prolonged exercises studies suggest that various intensities might have a positive or negative effect on fatty acid oxidation and on fatty acid oxidation of energy expenditure. There is limited studies to suggest 

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