Vienna University of Economics andBusiness SEMINAR PAPER Environmental& Cost Efficiency ofSmart HomesRadovan Brnovicand Juraj DraskovicProfessor: Mag. Gina Villanueva-Weinzierl, M.B.A. Vienna, January,2018 Contents Table of Contents.
1 1. Introduction.. 3 2. History of smart Homes. 5 3. Living Standard and Methods of Controlling. 5 3.
1. Switches. 5 3.2. Scenario testers. 5 3.3. Remote control 5 3.
4. TV.. 5 3.
5 Internet and mobile applications. 5 3.6. Text messages. 5 4. Discussion 7 5. Conclusion. 9 6.
References. 10 1. Introduction Inthis paper the it will be discussed how smart homes provide a better quality ofliving in a variety of ways. How they make day-to-day life easier by doing themajority of home functions. How they control heating, water and electricity asin doing so, energy consumption can be optimized which not only help with thebiggest problem of today, the overconsumption of energy but also saves money ofthe owner. It will also be discussed how the water tanks as well as solarpanels enable the house to be independent from the municipal sewage as well as thepower gird. At a time when automation is getting more and more common and whenone tries to streamline every segment of life through various technicalsystems, people increasingly decide to build so-called “smart homes”.
The smart home is the name for a system that connects and controls nearly alltechnical (electronic, electromechanical and mechanical) housing systems in theliving space. The goals of such a system are to protect property, make housingmore comfortable and safer, and optimize energy consumption as much aspossible. Each such house has a built-in central control system, and theintelligent installation system is applicable to all facilities regardless oftheir purpose. 2.
Historyof smart Houses(1901 – 1920) – The invention of home appliances – Homeappliances aren’t really “smart” buy today’s standards. However they were a significantbreakthrough in the early 20th century. The first one to be introduced was theengine-powered vacuum cleaner in 1901. Soon, an electricity-powered one wasinvented just six years later. In the following two decades electrical ironswould be invented, as well as refrigerators, washing machines, clothes dryers,toasters, and so many more. This was the first step in making life easier byautomation.1991 – Gerontechnology – theFamous example of Gerontechonolgy is the Life alert device that signals medicalstaff when an eldery person has fallen and is not able do get up on their own.
Early 2000s – Smart Homes –Theearly 2000s was the time when Smart Homes, or rather, home automation firstmade their debut. It was at this time that Smart Homes were becoming anaffordable option which was the main reason their popularity surged. Today’s Smart Homes – Today thefocus of smart homes is primarily greener living as new ways of energyconsumption optimization are being discovered. The security they offer is alsobecoming more and more efficient.
The Smart Homes of the future may resemblethe ones depicted in various sci-fi cartoons or movies. 3. LivingStandard & Methods of ControllingAssmart homes develop more and more, an increasing number of home automationcontrols are being introduced. The management bundle is varied and extends fromthe simplest testers of scenarios to a variety of mobile applications.2.1.SWITCHESWheninstalling intelligent systems, it is not necessary to make any major changesthroughout the house. The existing lighting control switches can easily beadapted to the new control system.
This simplicity and functionality not onlymakes home automation cheaper and easier but is sure to enable the owners toinstall the system themselves in the near future. Switches are the simplestform of controlling a smart home and present the first step toward moresophisticated or personalized ways of controlling a smart home which will bediscussed further into the text.2.2.SCENARIOS TESTSScannerdrivers are one of the simplest ways to manage smart homes.
For example, one ofthe possible scenarios is the scenario “I’m out of the house”. Byselecting this scenario on the tester, the system automatically slides theshutters, shuts off the lights, and performs all the other actions that are setin that scenario. This mode of management is easy to fit into your environmentin accordance with your habits and needs. It is also very useful as it solvesthe century old problem of not being sure if the stove was turned off or awindow was left open when the owner leaves the house for longer periods oftime. 2.
3.REMOTE CONTROLIfthere is more than one remote control in the home, there is a possibility of connectingall devices to one remote control. This makes it possible to control all homeappliances using a single remote, which greatly adds to the comfort of living.
This also adds a personalized touch to a smart home as it literally becomesoperative by a simple push of a button.2.4.
TVHomeautomation, movies, photos, music and the Internet can be managed via the TV.The only condition is that the existing TV has an HDMI input. Which is a great wayof controlling a home because the owner does not even have to get out of thechair to manage the home. And since all TVs today have an HDMI input this doesnot really present any issues. The HDMI input as a way to connect to the systemof controlling a smart home is sure to prove as invaluable asset in futuredevelopments of controlling smart homes, as more and more devices are equipped withit.
The most important example being the notebook.2.5INTERNET AND MOBILE APPLICATIONSWiththe Internet and mobile apps, it is possible to turn devices on or off fromremote locations. For example, in summer it is possible to turn on theair-conditioning or heating in winter before coming home.
This is also veryimportant as it also solves the worries of the owner on whether anything was leftturned on while leaving the house for longer periods of time.2.6.MESSAGESIfthere is a problem in the house, for example smoke detection, the systeminforms the owner of the problem with a message.
These messages are also animportant security asset as the owner can also be notified when there isunsuspected movement sensed in the house. The messages themselves are a veryimportant data carriers as they do not require internet and so the message ismore likely to reach the owner than if it was sent via internet. Picture1. Smart Home system 4. DiscussionOneof the main tasks of the system is to alert the owner of the incoming dangerand in doing so it can increase security and protection significantly. Forexample, during a gas or smoke leakage devices specially designed to detect ahazardous situation are triggered and alarm the homeowner, and there is apossibility to activate certain devices whose job it is to secure the place ofliving. Furthermore, motion sensors can identify unwanted guests and alert theowner that there was unanticipated movement in the house.Motionsensors, besides offering the owner safety, are very important in achieving asmuch comfort as possible.
They can be adjusted in a way that as soon as they registermovement, they trigger the default actions such as turning on / off lights andair conditioners. Air conditioners can be adjusted and, except when triggeredby the motion sensor, are programmed to activate at a certain temperature.Apart from comfort, this also saves energy because the climate will not be onall day if there is no need for it. Lighting can also be tailored to the needsand wishes of the owner so it is possible to program the system in such a waythat the lights are automatically turned off when the house is empty or thatcertain lights are turned on/off in certain conditions or scenarios. All thiscontributes to a more comfortable and simpler living. Among the essentials in asmart home is the Internet of Things (IoR) which is described as by Wikipedia asa “network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other itemsembedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and networkconnectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data”1.
Every appliance is installed with an internet access and can monitor the behaviorand preferences of the owner, so for example a coffee machine monitors howoften a person drinks coffee and what flavor he/she prefers. The device thenprocesses this information and a supply system can be installed in which thedevice itself makes the order for more coffee which is then in turn deliveredto the owner’s house while his bank account is automatically debited. This typeof buying everyday things is not restricted only to coffee, fridges of thefuture will also be able to monitor the amount and type of produce held in themand will also be able to make regular orders without the owner having to gothrough much trouble him/herself. o Environmental & Cost Efficiency Oneof the most important issues in the world, as well as every household, isenergy and energy efficiency. For even the simplest operation, it is necessaryto spend a certain amount of energy, but each one should do the job with minimalenergy consumption. One of the main motives behind building smart homes isincreasing energy efficiency.
Intelligent systems control the consumption andreact automatically if the set values are exceeded ??and the system stabilityis compromised. Furthermore, consumption is the lowest when heating andlighting are placed in economic mode. This means it is switched off as soon asthe room or house are empty and thus saves a lot of energy. Since the sameitems refer to protection, safety and energy efficiency it is logical toconclude that all of the segments are linked to one another, so turning off the lights on the sensors adds tothe comfort while simultaneously saving energy. Users of such systems typicallyconsume 20% to 40% less energy depending on how well the system is used.
Thereis limitless possibility to increase the energy efficiency of such houses.Nowadays, more and more people talk about renewable energy sources, so smarthomes have solar panels or photovoltaic cells that transform Solar energy intoother useful forms of energy. The main problem with using such a system is not collectingenergy but storing it. For example, most energy is collected in the afternoon,but the biggest consumption happens in the evening, and it is more important tothink about storing the energy so that it can be used whenever it is needed andnot just when the sun is shining. As technology advances, more and more peopleare thinking of ways to store energy. But to improve energy storage, it isnecessary to change the entire infrastructure, which is both time-consuming andcostly.
Even though installation might be expensive in the beginning, as timegoes by, the cost efficiency of the smart home will become apparent. The wateras well the electrical bills will almost be nonexistent as the home can providealmost everything a person need in everyday life with minimal costs and energy.Regarding electricity, as mentioned above, using the solar panels the homebecomes independent from the local power grid. It can be argued that the solarpanels are expensive as well, but they are a quick return on investment, asthey provide free energy and the owner can sell surplus energy.
Water tanksbuilt around the house collect rain and filter it so that it can be used forsanitary purposes in day to day situations. They also reduce the amount ofsewage discharged to oceans and rivers. In larger quantity, the tanks couldeven help with reduction of storm water on roads and drainage infrastructures.
Smart homes also take care of another necessity and that is heating. Smart homeoffers a variety of cost efficient, futuristic ways of heating a home. GroundSource Heat Pumps uses pipes that are buried deep in the back yard to extractheat for your smart home. A system uses a mixture of antifreeze and water thatcirculates around a loop in the ground and in doing so collects heat which isthen sent into the home. This heat can then be used where it’s needed forexample for the hot water, underfloor heating, and radiators in the house. TheGround stays at a more or less at a constant temperature under the surface yearlong, so the use of the heat pump is not restricted to a particular period ofthe year. This of course results inlower fuel bills, particularly if it replaces electric heating. Installation Costsare usually somewhere between $11,000 and $15,000, and running the systemnaturally depends on a number of factors like the home size and the quality ofits insulation.
The second type of heating system is the Air source heat pump that absorbs heatfrom outside and turns the hot air into a fluid, which is then passed through a compressor to increase itstemperature. Two types of the air pump are currently on the market:air-to-water systems that distribute heat through the central heating system, whileair-to-air heat pump systems produce warm air which is circulated by fans. Thesecond one isn’t likely to be used for heating water. Similary to the ground pump,air pumps require a home that is well insulated as they are better whenproducing heat at lower temperatures than tradsitional boilers are. The costfor both heating systems is more or less the same, with the air pump cost rangingfrom $7,000 to about $14,000. The most futuristic one is Smart Heating With AMicro CHP Boiler. The concept of this heating system is very simple: it maximizesefficiency. These boilers, although similar both in shape and size to ordinaryboilers, the distinction lies in them being ale to generate electrical powerwhilst they are heating water.
Admittedly Domestic micro-CHP systems arecurrently powered by fossil fuels. In spite of this, the technology is stillconsidered to be a ‘low carbon technology’ because it can be more efficientthan burning fossil fuels for heat and getting electricity from the grid. Picture2. The possibilities a Smart Home offers 5. ConclusionDevelopingsmart homes and building them around the world every day is flourishing aspeople are becoming more and more aware of the benefits the homes bring forthem regarding independency from energy providers as well as the substantialcost reductions and the positive effects it has on the environment. This isalso confirmed by predictions that the smart home market, currently worth $5.
77 billion, will exceed $ 10 billion by 2020. Unfortunately, the same cannotbe said for some counties that have not yet recognized the prosperity that theSmart Homes bring or simply are not developed enough that it can be implementedon a larger scale. However, astime moves on and the economy develops worldwide,smart homes will start to be implemented around the world. In the last few decades, we have witnessedthe exponential growth and development of technology, for instance, ten yearsago, the term smartphone did not even exist, and today almost every personusing a mobile device has a smartphone. As technology develops, smart homesystems are increasingly evolving, and it is to be expected that the marketwill continue to grow. Almost all developed countries are beginning tointroduce or have already introduced laws regulating energy efficiency, andsince one of the main motives behind building smart homes is to increase energyefficiency, it is to be expected that the construction of smart homes will bemore and more stimulated.
Furthermore, as technology advances, more and moremanufacturers are becoming involved in selling and installation of intelligentsystems which will in turn drive the prices down and owning a smart home will nolonger be reserved exclusively for the wealthier. References