ü Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are composed of two or more fused aromatic benzene rings having lipophilic nature with comparatively high desorption activation energy (Johnsen and Karlson, 2005).ü Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be encountered as an atmospheric pollutants by a small combustion units, traffic, industrial processes, and tobacco smoke. PAHs were detected in air, soil and sediments, water, including tissues of animals and plants, which is why it is a very crucial pollutants due to their carcinogenic (genotoxic and induce mutations that initiate cancer) properties and their persistent nature (Manoli and Samara, 1999). ü I used to live in Puchong where it is known as an industrial and growth development city.
There are many factories were established in Puchong areas which is also to some extend contributed to increase the PHAs level pollution. Mostly, PHAs were known as atmospheric pollutants, but in some cases, PHAs content also can be found in the water coming from industrial waste. Human exposure to PAHs have much more risk of developing cancer (lung, bladder, stomach, skin, larynx, scrotum, breast, kidney, pancreas, oesophageal, and prostate), and PAHs also known to suppress the immune system, react with DNA, leading to mutations (USEPA, 2008; Siddens et al., 2012; Xu et al. 2013). In Malaysia, the Third National Cancer Registry Report (2003-2005) stated that skin cancer was the 10th most common cancer in Malaysia.
ü Pollution is a common thing for the city environment; breathing air contaminated with motor vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, industrial smoke and waste, and tar. Nowadays, people tend to smoke in the public without having consideration about the people around them. Research has found that urinary PAH metabolites are higher in adults who smoke than in non-smoking adults.
Exposure to these compounds can also irritate our eyes, blocking our breathing passage, tumors, and the risk for getting cancer diseases are much higher than those who live in the rural areas. ü PAHs content can be reduced by prohibition public smoking (Abdel-Shafy, Hussein, 2016). In industrial countries, people who smoke tobacco products, or who are exposed to second-hand smoke, are among the most highly exposed groups; tobacco contributes to 90% of indoor PAH levels in the homes of smokers (Choi,H.
; Harrison, R.; Komulainen, H.; Delgado Saborit, J., 2010). The use of catalytic converter (Exhaust emission control device) on our vehicles also might reduced the exposure of PAHs through the environment.
Geographically, major roadways are sources of PAHs, which may distribute in the atmosphere (Srogi, K, 2007). By replacing the gasoline-fired vehicles with catalytic converters, it can reduced the PAHs emissions by 25-fold (Ravindra, K; Sokhi, R; Van Grieken, R, 2008). Avoid from burning solid fuels such as coal for cooking and heating as it leads to high levels of PAHs exposure, especially for women and children who spend more time in the home or cooking (Kim, K-H; Jahan, S A; Kabir, E (2011). Another study found a strong association between indoor PAH exposures and breast cancer. Women who had high indoor exposures had a 30-50 percent increased incidence of breast cancer (White, A.
J., Bradshaw, P. T., Herring, A. H.
, Teitelbaum, S. L., Beyea, J.
, Stellman, S. D., Conway, K., 2016).
From this activity, I have learnt that organic substances can sometimes be harmful to human being and sometimes not. We were always surrounding by many organic substances whether in the water, air and underground. It is very important to know and explore their uses, advantages and disadvantages in our daily life. Without knowing the substances, we might exposed to dangerous whether it will effect our health or environment itself.