### TRACT important factors in maintaining well control. The

TRACT

Mud density is one of the most important factors in
maintaining well control. The importance of the density experiment is to
determine the weight of a readied volume of mud sample, in different units
which can be used for various operations on the field. It can also be used to
maintain the hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore. It also helps to prevent
fracture in the wellbore which can lead to blow out and expensive damages to
the rig.

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This report will show the laboratory method for testing
the density of mud with the use of mud balance. It will also show the results
gotten from the experiment.

Table
of content

Abstract…………………….……………………………………………………1

Introduction…..……………………………………………………………….2

Diagram……………………………………………………………………..…..3

Procedure……………………………………………………………………….4

Results/Analysis.………………………………………………………………5

Precautions…….………………………………………………………………6

Discussion & Conclusion…………………………………….……………7

References……………………………………………………………………….8

INTRODUCTION

Density of a mud can be defined as the weight per unit
volume of the mud. It is expressed in pounds per gallon (lb/gal or ppg), pounds
per cubic foot (lb/ft³) or in the form of specific gravity specific gravity. The
density of any sample needs to be determined before any drilling operation can
start. Mud density should not be taking likely during the drilling operation
because the smallest error in the values can lead to catastrophic disaster.  It forms the starting point of pressure
control.

DIAGRAMS

A
4-Scale Metal Mud Balance with Carrying Case.

Electric Mixer

EQUIPMENT /APPARATUS

§  4 scale mud balance with carrying case

§  Electric mixer

§  Beaker

§  Measuring cylinder

§  Weighing balance

§  Spatula

PROCEDURES

SAMPLE
1:

1.
Weigh 35g of bentonite on the weigh balance
and measure 350ml of water in the glass measuring cylinder and mix them thoroughly
to avoid formation of lumps.

2.
Place the mud balance base (preferably in
the carrying case) on a flat level surface.

3.
Fill
the clean, dry cup to the top with the test fluid.

4.
Place
the lid on the cup and make sure it is properly set. Be sure to clean and
remove the expelled mud that escapes through the hole in the cup as this will
ensure the cup is full and also will free any trapped air.

5.
Place
the balance on the knife edge and move the rider along the outside of the arm
until the cup and arm are balanced as indicated by the bubble.

6.
Take
the readings of the mud weight at the edge of the rider towards the mud cup.

7.
Pour
the mud sample in the cup used for the density experiment back into the
initially prepared mud sample of which part had been used for the experiment
and wipe the cup clean.

SAMPLE
2:

1.
Weigh 35g of bentonite and the 10g of
barite on the weigh balance and measure 350ml of water in the glass measuring
cylinder and mix them thoroughly to avoid formation of lumps.

2.
Place the mud balance base (preferably in
the carrying case) on a flat level surface.

3.
Fill
the clean, dry cup to the top with the test fluid.

4.
Place
the lid on the cup and make sure it is properly set. Be sure to clean and
remove the expelled mud that escapes through the hole in the cup as this will
ensure the cup is full and also will free any trapped air.

5.
Place
the balance on the knife edge and move the rider along the outside of the arm
until the cup and arm are balanced as indicated by the bubble.

6.
Take
the readings of the mud weight at the edge of the rider towards the mud cup.

7.
Pour
the mud sample in the cup used for the density experiment back into the
initially prepared mud sample of which part had been used for the experiment
and wipe the cup clean.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

SAMPLE 1

SAMPLE 2

PPG

8.7

8.8

S.G

1.04

1.06

Lb/ft

65

66

Psi/1000ft

455

460

PRECAUTIONS

1.   I avoided parallax error by taking my reading
at the lower meniscus.

2.   I ensured that my 4 scale mud balance was
calibrated before I began my measurement.

3.   I ensured that the cup of the mud balance was
wiped dry before it was balanced on the knife edge.

DISSCUSION & CONCLUSION

In conclusion the test
for mud density is a very important test. From this experiment we were able to
observe that the density of sample 2 has a heavier density that sample 1
because of the presence of barite which is as a weighing agent and increases
the density.

REFERENCES

Drilling fluid
technology by Dr.Engr. E.E.Okoro

Drilling mud
manual  by Engr.  Ifeanyi

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