Tourism is viewed asan environmentally friendly way to revitalize distressed rural communities andeconomies (Sekhar, 2003).
Tourismhas emerged as the largest global industry of the 20th century and is projectedto grow even faster in the 21st century. Recently, academicians have paidattention to the changing patterns of tourism as an embodiment of broader societalchanges and the shift towards post-modernism. It is said that leisure relatedactivities have become increasingly commoditized, reflecting a global “cultureof consumption” (Gupta, 2011). Tourismis one of the world’s most rapidly growing industries and it has emerged as afast growing sector in terms of employment and income generation.World Travel andTourism Council (WTTC) has identified tourism as an engine for economicprogress, keeping in view its profound contribution to the world economy whichhas almost doubled from the 1990s. Besides employment generation, tourismsector has played a pivotal role in poverty alleviation and sustainable humandevelopment. Being a major element of many countries’ service exports, tourismhas the power to deliver significant international earnings that can be utilizedfor alleviating poverty (Raghavan 2005). The potential for GIS applications intourism is significant.
GIS is now recognized widely as a valuable tool formanaging, analyzing, and displaying large volumes of diverse data pertinent tomany local and regional planning activities. Its use in environmental planningis rapidly increasing. Tourism is an activity highly dependent on environmentalresources. It is also a phenomenon, which in the event of a lack of planningand management is likely to erode its environmental base. Hence, the strengthof tourism planning can be enhanced by GIS applications. GIS can be regarded asproviding a toolbox of techniques and technologies of wide applicability to theachievement of sustainable tourism development (Bualhamam, 2009).
Tourism has historically been dependent on thecharacter of the destination, including attractions, beaches and resorts. It isa complex activity that requires the availability of certain parameters (e.g.accessible road networks, standard accommodation facilities, attractions etc)and information on potential and existing attraction sites. A geographicinformation system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate,analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data .GIS is agrowing multidisciplinary technology based on geography, computer science, andsociology and so on. Various application domains quietly used ranging fromeconomical, ecological and demographic analysis, city and route planning. GISis basically composed of four major parts (M.
Laxmaiah1 and A.GovardhanMay 2013).Information on these parameters and attraction sites can be gathered,processed, organized and stored using tools such as Global Positioning System(GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS) coupled with remote sensing. Aftergathering the needed data about a destination, the data must be stored in aretrievable form to enhance tourism, and this can be achieved with the aid ofGIS (Akukwe, Thecla I. 1 and Odum, Chigozie, J.2 Oct. 2014).
In the future, the global tourism industry is likely to be affected byfive key factors- human, geo-political, economic, technological andenvironmental. These factors are likely to compel managers to find new ways tostrategically position their operations across relevant global markets,possibly through the adoption of multiple-virtual, and physical, integratedvalue-adding strategies and approaches (Anwar and John 200 and Glenn F. Rose, 2005). Temporal variations innatural phenomena also affect destinations (or receiving areas). Thereceiving area is the location of the suppliers of tourism activity. Climate,for example, can determine the types of tourist attractions within adestination. On the other hand, the cultural, religious, ethnic and socialactivities in a destination influence the type and number of visitorsChristine Lee, Sue Bergin-Seers, Graeme Galloway,Barry O’Mahony and AdelaMcMurray (2008) .
The natural and cultural heritage is oftenvulnerable to the impacts of modern development, consumer lifestyles andglobalization. KoblenzerStr January 2005. There arefive sectors in the overall product, which are Hospitality sector,Attractions and events sector, Transportation sector, Travel organizers’and intermediaries’ sector, and Destination organization sector. Hospitalityis an expression of welcome by local residents to tourists arriving in theircommunity (i.e. hotels, guest houses, apartments, and condominiums). Theattraction and event sector can be defined as theme parks, museums andgalleries, national parks, heritage sites and centers, and festival and events.The transportation sector includes airlines, shipping lines, railways, busoperators, and car rental operators.
Travel organizers and intermediaries sector contains travel e-mediaries,tour operators, tour wholesalers, retail travel agents, and conferenceorganizers. Destination organization sector consists of National touristoffices (NTOs), Destination marketing organizations (DMOs), regional touristoffices, and tourist associations (Butterworth-Heinemann, Routledge 2009)Temperatures, sunshine, and rainfall have been identified as importanttourism factors in the summer season. Variations in weather conditions can leadto large changes in tourism demand.
Several studies find that good weatherconditions in a destination in a given season lead to increases in domesticovernight stays in the same period. Furthermore, foreign (outbound) tourismdemand is affected by weather conditions only after a lag of up to 1-year(Agnew and Palutikof, 2006). Hotels and restaurants are in focus from theperspective of most of the educational programs as well as from investment andgovernment policies. Physical infrastructure is an important factor in atourism industry. In the CRV/central rift valley in Ethiopia the roads areconvenient for the tourism industry as it is operating now. But, in theperspective of developing potential attractions road construction is needed,because, most of the attractions are off road and inaccessible during rainingseason A. Kauffmann August 2008.
Ethiopia has nine heritagesinscribed by UNESCO as world heritages, which would attract more visitors andcontribute more to the growth in the number of tourists. Off course, favorableconditions have been created in infrastructure development, increasing numberof flight destinations of the Ethiopian Airlines as well as the existing peaceand stability coupled with the sound economic growth. In addition, Ethiopia hasother UNESCO-registered heritages such as the Tiya stelae and the Konsolandscapes, among others.
Konso landscape constitutes aspectacular example of a living cultural tradition stretching back 21generations, more than 500 years, adapted to its dry hostile environment. Thelandscape demonstrates the shared values, social cohesion and engineeringknowledge of its communities Keb Mathews 2006. InKonso the natural and cultural heritage of a region is the main motivation fora tourist’s visit, this is especially the case for cultural or nature tourism,or provides at least an important complementary offer for other types oftourism, e.g. domestic tourisms like college and university students, Ethiopianpeople for recreation during when they married each other, recreation and outsideor international tourists. The outstanding natural and cultural features of aregion are those which make a place “special” – and worth a visit.Landscapedescribes a region’s shape and characteristics.
It is primarily a part of thenatural heritage as it is largely formed by geological is land terrain, Newyork,and hydrological is hot spring water but it is also strongly influenced by natural factors, human factors andaccessibilities. The man made cultureand landscape is essentially contributing to the visitor’s impressions of andfeelings about a region. Landscape is usually not seen as a specific subject ofinterest – normally single features such as hot spring formations, geologicalphenomena/newyork formation and private protected forests, e.g. forests arewhat attract the visitor.
It is, however, experiencing these features in thecontext of the whole landscape of the area that makes visiting them special.Many tourist activities are based on the experience of landscape and culture,like all kind of nature tourism, manmade attractions and culture. The lack of social awareness from part ofboth, local people and visitors, their cultural insensitivity, an impropermanagement and/or insufficient legal framework and law enforcement can lead tothe deterioration of physical and immaterial natural and cultural goods. Therefore,to provide the basis for tourism development not only in the present, but alsofor future generations, natural and cultural heritage must be protected.Considering protection and making use of tourism development as a means ofconservation is a basic principle of sustainable tourism development. But in thestudy area the tourists and tourism sites are likely to be affected by somefactors- accessibilities, human awareness, religion, climate, and technologicaletc.The slope affects the tourism in study area through the steep slopeso in relation to the high rain fall intensity the attractive manmade touristattractions like tracing know recently is eroding due to lack of tracingconservation on land escapes. Slope also affects the road accessibilities strengthdue to the lack of gentle slope and large rocks so it’s difficult for touriststo travel by car.
LU/LC one of the tourism hindering factor due to LU/LC changethat means the manmade tourism attraction’slike public gathering, waka, and traditional house building materials arescarce due to this reason the way of traditional house building was changing tomodernity one like roof .In other case konso is one district but there are thevariations in climate. So due to the seasonal change the climate affects thenumber of tourist flow when high rainfall and high temperature and vice versa. But the other factors like soil are not neededfor this project because the tourism attractions have no much relationshipbetween attraction sites.In konso district there areabout 42 kebeles divided in to 5 sub districts like karat, Gena, Duro, Kolme,and Kumaide but the tourism potentials are very vary to each other so in thissub districts the researcher will select the tourism suitable areas in relationto accessibilities.Suchassessments for these important tourism attractions have not been mappedearlier, and are therefore critical for drafting practical and effectivestrategic sustainable tourism plans for the area.
This study seeks to evaluatethe tourism potential in the study area and suitabilities for tourism andaccessible opportunities in tourism satisfaction, and to show how fortifyemotional connections between tourism hotspots and destinations in the konso.