Tourism planning activities. Its use in environmental planning

Tourism is viewed as
an environmentally friendly way to revitalize distressed rural communities and
economies (Sekhar, 2003). Tourism
has emerged as the largest global industry of the 20th century and is projected
to grow even faster in the 21st century. Recently, academicians have paid
attention to the changing patterns of tourism as an embodiment of broader societal
changes and the shift towards post-modernism. It is said that leisure related
activities have become increasingly commoditized, reflecting a global “culture
of consumption” (Gupta, 2011). Tourism
is one of the world’s most rapidly growing industries and it has emerged as a
fast growing sector in terms of employment and income generation.

World Travel and
Tourism Council (WTTC) has identified tourism as an engine for economic
progress, keeping in view its profound contribution to the world economy which
has almost doubled from the 1990s. Besides employment generation, tourism
sector has played a pivotal role in poverty alleviation and sustainable human
development. Being a major element of many countries’ service exports, tourism
has the power to deliver significant international earnings that can be utilized
for alleviating poverty (Raghavan 2005). The potential for GIS applications in
tourism is significant. GIS is now recognized widely as a valuable tool for
managing, analyzing, and displaying large volumes of diverse data pertinent to
many local and regional planning activities. Its use in environmental planning
is rapidly increasing. Tourism is an activity highly dependent on environmental
resources. It is also a phenomenon, which in the event of a lack of planning
and management is likely to erode its environmental base. Hence, the strength
of tourism planning can be enhanced by GIS applications. GIS can be regarded as
providing a toolbox of techniques and technologies of wide applicability to the
achievement of sustainable tourism development (Bualhamam, 2009).

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 Tourism has historically been dependent on the
character of the destination, including attractions, beaches and resorts. It is
a complex activity that requires the availability of certain parameters (e.g.
accessible road networks, standard accommodation facilities, attractions etc)
and information on potential and existing attraction sites.

A geographic
information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate,
analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data .GIS is a
growing multidisciplinary technology based on geography, computer science, and
sociology and so on. Various application domains quietly used ranging from
economical, ecological and demographic analysis, city and route planning. GIS
is basically composed of four major parts (M.Laxmaiah1 and A.GovardhanMay 2013).
Information on these parameters and attraction sites can be gathered,
processed, organized and stored using tools such as Global Positioning System
(GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS) coupled with remote sensing. After
gathering the needed data about a destination, the data must be stored in a
retrievable form to enhance tourism, and this can be achieved with the aid of
GIS (Akukwe, Thecla I. 1 and Odum, Chigozie, J.2 Oct. 2014).

 In the future, the global tourism industry is likely to be affected by
five key factors- human, geo-political, economic, technological and
environmental. These factors are likely to compel managers to find new ways to
strategically position their operations across relevant global markets,
possibly through the adoption of multiple-virtual, and physical, integrated
value-adding strategies and approaches (Anwar and John 200 and Glenn F. Rose, 2005). Temporal variations in
natural phenomena also affect destinations (or receiving areas). The
receiving area is the location of the suppliers of tourism activity. Climate,
for example, can determine the types of tourist attractions within a
destination. On the other hand, the cultural, religious, ethnic and social
activities in a destination influence the type and number of visitors
Christine Lee, Sue Bergin-Seers, Graeme Galloway,Barry O’Mahony and Adela
McMurray (2008) . The natural and cultural heritage is often
vulnerable to the impacts of modern development, consumer lifestyles and
globalization. Koblenzer
Str January 2005. There are
five sectors in the overall product, which are Hospitality sector,
Attractions and events sector, Transportation sector, Travel organizers’
and intermediaries’ sector, and Destination organization sector. Hospitality
is an expression of welcome by local residents to tourists arriving in their
community (i.e. hotels, guest houses, apartments, and condominiums). The
attraction and event sector can be defined as theme parks, museums and
galleries, national parks, heritage sites and centers, and festival and events.
The transportation sector includes airlines, shipping lines, railways, bus
operators, and car rental operators.

Travel organizers and intermediaries sector contains travel e-mediaries,
tour operators, tour wholesalers, retail travel agents, and conference
organizers. Destination organization sector consists of National tourist
offices (NTOs), Destination marketing organizations (DMOs), regional tourist
offices, and tourist associations (Butterworth-Heinemann, Routledge 2009)

Temperatures, sunshine, and rainfall have been identified as important
tourism factors in the summer season. Variations in weather conditions can lead
to large changes in tourism demand. Several studies find that good weather
conditions in a destination in a given season lead to increases in domestic
overnight stays in the same period. Furthermore, foreign (outbound) tourism
demand is affected by weather conditions only after a lag of up to 1-year
(Agnew and Palutikof, 2006). Hotels and restaurants are in focus from the
perspective of most of the educational programs as well as from investment and
government policies. Physical infrastructure is an important factor in a
tourism industry. In the CRV/central rift valley in Ethiopia the roads are
convenient for the tourism industry as it is operating now. But, in the
perspective of developing potential attractions road construction is needed,
because, most of the attractions are off road and inaccessible during raining
season A. Kauffmann August 2008.

Ethiopia has nine heritages
inscribed by UNESCO as world heritages, which would attract more visitors and
contribute more to the growth in the number of tourists. Off course, favorable
conditions have been created in infrastructure development, increasing number
of flight destinations of the Ethiopian Airlines as well as the existing peace
and stability coupled with the sound economic growth. In addition, Ethiopia has
other UNESCO-registered heritages such as the Tiya stelae and the Konso
landscapes, among others.

Konso landscape constitutes a
spectacular example of a living cultural tradition stretching back 21
generations, more than 500 years, adapted to its dry hostile environment. The
landscape demonstrates the shared values, social cohesion and engineering
knowledge of its communities Keb Mathews 2006.

In
Konso the natural and cultural heritage of a region is the main motivation for
a tourist’s visit, this is especially the case for cultural or nature tourism,
or provides at least an important complementary offer for other types of
tourism, e.g. domestic tourisms like college and university students, Ethiopian
people for recreation during when they married each other, recreation and outside
or international tourists. The outstanding natural and cultural features of a
region are those which make a place “special” – and worth a visit.

Landscape
describes a region’s shape and characteristics. It is primarily a part of the
natural heritage as it is largely formed by geological is land terrain, Newyork,
and hydrological is hot spring water but it is also strongly influenced by natural factors, human factors and
accessibilities. The man made culture
and landscape is essentially contributing to the visitor’s impressions of and
feelings about a region. Landscape is usually not seen as a specific subject of
interest – normally single features such as hot spring formations, geological
phenomena/newyork formation and private protected forests, e.g. forests are
what attract the visitor. It is, however, experiencing these features in the
context of the whole landscape of the area that makes visiting them special.
Many tourist activities are based on the experience of landscape and culture,
like all kind of nature tourism, manmade attractions and culture. The lack of social awareness from part of
both, local people and visitors, their cultural insensitivity, an improper
management and/or insufficient legal framework and law enforcement can lead to
the deterioration of physical and immaterial natural and cultural goods. Therefore,
to provide the basis for tourism development not only in the present, but also
for future generations, natural and cultural heritage must be protected.
Considering protection and making use of tourism development as a means of
conservation is a basic principle of sustainable tourism development. But in the
study area the tourists and tourism sites are likely to be affected by some
factors- accessibilities, human awareness, religion, climate, and technological
etc.

The slope affects the tourism in study area through the steep slope
so in relation to the high rain fall intensity the attractive manmade tourist
attractions like tracing know recently is eroding due to lack of tracing
conservation on land escapes. Slope also affects the road accessibilities strength
due to the lack of gentle slope and large rocks so it’s difficult for tourists
to travel by car.

LU/LC one of the tourism hindering factor due to LU/LC change
that means  the manmade tourism attraction’s
like public gathering, waka, and traditional house building materials are
scarce due to this reason the way of traditional house building was changing to
modernity one like roof .

In other case konso is one district but there are the
variations in climate. So due to the seasonal change the climate affects the
number of tourist flow when high rainfall and high temperature and vice versa.  But the other factors like soil are not needed
for this project because the tourism attractions have no much relationship
between attraction sites.

In konso district there are
about 42 kebeles divided in to 5 sub districts like karat, Gena, Duro, Kolme,
and Kumaide but the tourism potentials are very vary to each other so in this
sub districts the researcher will select the tourism suitable areas in relation
to accessibilities.

Such
assessments for these important tourism attractions have not been mapped
earlier, and are therefore critical for drafting practical and effective
strategic sustainable tourism plans for the area. This study seeks to evaluate
the tourism potential in the study area and suitabilities for tourism and
accessible opportunities in tourism satisfaction, and to show how fortify
emotional connections between tourism hotspots and destinations in the konso.

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