Topic: reestablish and call all the data. Corpus

Topic: corpus base
approach;  use of prepositions in
Pakistan English Novels

 

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                                      Dr. Behzad
Anwar

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by:

                                      Tayyba
Mazhar

Roll
no:

                                      17221702-004

Class:

                                      M.Phil.
English (Linguistics-1)

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

1     Abstract 3

2     Introduction. 3

2.1      Prepositions. 3

2.2      Simple
prepositions. 3

2.3      Compound
prepositions. 3

2.4      Corpus. 4

2.5      Pakistani
English. 4

3     Research
objective. 5

4     Research
question. 6

5     Significance
of the study. 6

6     Limitation
of study. 6

7     Literature
review.. 6

7.1      Research
work in world Englishes. 6

7.2      Research
work on Pakistani English. 8

7.3      Research
work related to preposition. 11

8     Research
methodology. 12

9     Data
collection. 12

10       Data
analysis. 13

11       Conclusion
17

12         
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1          
Abstract

The present study explores wide use
of preposition in Pakistani English novels. It is the corpus base research and
studies the frequency of simple, compound and phrasal prepositions. The corpus
methodology has contributed significantly to gain objective and quantitative
findings. In Pakistani English the preposition has been found to be used more
frequently. The findings of the study correspond closely to that simple
prepositions are frequently used by Pakistani writers in fictions.

Keywords:
World Englishes, Pakistani English, corpus, preposition

2          
Introduction

2.1        
 Prepositions

A Preposition is a Part of Speech set before
different Words, and shows the Relation that   the Word tailing it has to some Word before
it. (Barker, 1733?: 22-23)

A
preposition is a word which is normally set before a thing or pronoun to
demonstrate the last’s connection to some word in the sentence.

2.2        
Simple prepositions

Simple
prepositions are   words   generally used by prefixing a word to a
Noun, an Adjective or an Adverb. For example: in, at, on etc.

 

2.3        
Compound prepositions

Compound
prepositions words are those relational words which are framed by prefixing the
relational word to a thing, a modifier or a qualifier” Examples: above,
along, inside, around, sometime recently, behind, underneath, underneath and so
on.

2.4       
Phrasal prepositions

 

Phrasal
prepositions are a progression of words or expressions (get it) that connection
and relate the question of the relational word (a thing or a pronoun) to
whatever is left of the sentence.

 

2.5        
Corpus

 

Corpus
is an electronic type of gathering of content that is perused by PC through           programming. It’s thought to be the
agent of dialect. Corpus gives more legitimate and adjusted data it indicates
what is normal and run of the mill. A corpus can give us exact measurements and
it can reestablish and call all the data. Corpus can likewise give an immense
number of cases utilized as a part of genuine correspondence. It helps in
giving target prove. It can be available to everybody forever. Corpus gives
better come about through refreshing its product. This theory depicts that
corpus will enable scientist to compound words in Pakistani English books and
spare to time by giving exact outcome.

2.6        
Pakistani English

 

Pakistani
English is a systematized as other non -local assortments. English is utilized
as second dialect and medium of direction in the workplaces, schools, colleges
and Global dealings. Generally individuals of this locale are bilingual in the
wake of learning English dialect they end up plainly multilingual. Fundamental
native language is Punjabi and first dialect is Urdu and afterward second
dialect is English (Hashmi, 1996). English presented English as official
dialect to supplant Persian. The English dialect is keeping up its position since
autonomy (Haque,1982).There are four sub assortments in Pakistani
English.(Rahman,1989 )Variety A  additionally called Anglicized English it contrasts in phonological highlights. It
includes western families or journalists with global notoriety. Assortment B is
known as Acrolect. It is contrasting
in all highlights from British Standard English aside from lexical measurement.
Individuals include assortment B are instructed from English medium schools.
Upper white collar class included heads, columnists and expert individuals.
Assortment C is the Mesolect what’s
more, it contrasts in all measurements than assortment An and B. Center or
upper white collar class get training in Urdu medium schools. Assortment D
known as Basilect it is minimum
comprehensible for nonnatives. It included assistants, type essayists with low
instruction. (Rahman, 2007)Writers separate Pakistani English from Indian
English in one angle and it identifies with Islam what’s more, Muslim history
(Moag 1986, p.37). Distinctive Islamic researchers endeavor to evacuate English
part in Pakistan however they fizzled. General Zia ul Haq actualize Islamic
principles and present Urdu medium training. Be that as it may, general
Musharraf present English as official dialect. (Mahboob; 2002)

 

 

3          
Research objective

 

The
aim of this study is to check use of in novels of Pakistani English by

using
corpus. Objective is to get authentic result that could help further in
research field.

 

4          
Research question

 

·        
Which type of   preposition is highly used in Pakistani
English novels?

5          
Significance of the study

 

This
study is helpful for student of English linguistic to know about the use of
prepositions in novels and the importance of Pakistani English fiction in the
field of

World Englishes.
Researchers will understand about the use of preposition by

Pakistani
writers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6          
Limitation of study

 

This investigation is the
restricted to books of Pakistani authors. Analyst will investigate just the prepositions
utilized as a part of Pakistani fiction and in no other field. Analysis done in
this proposition is subjective in nature.

7          
Literature review

7.1        
       Research work in
world Englishes

 

The
exposure of three broad categories of regional varieties in English has been
scattered.

Native speaker or where English is
used as most prominent language involving into first

category. People move toward
countries like Australia, Canada, UK, USA, and New

Zealand from Great Britain. The
categories of second set have spread in the countries

where English has a long history,
innovative writing, and legal status. It involved India,

Nigeria, and Singapore, the
Philippine and other countries (B. 
Kachru, 1985; Crystal

1987, p.357 ). Varieties that
involved third set are in advance countries. English is used

for international gain than it
builds uniformity and creative innovation. It involved

population of Japan, China, and
Korea. These set of varieties are called inner, outer and

expanding circles. (B. Kachru;
1985)

There is no group of any one circle
or specific variety in term world Englishes. It simply

indicates historical fact dispersal
and inauguration of English around the world. It takes

into account the regions of South
East Asia, South Asia and East Asia but does not

concentrate on South East Asia.
There are diverse types of publications in World

Englishes. (B. Kachru 1982b)
Writers work on specific region in different varieties of

English. Bautista (1997; 2000)
worked on Philippine English. Bolton (2003) worked on

Chinese English. Stanlaw (2004) on
Japanese English. B. Kachru (1983) work on Indian

English and Rahman (1990) work on
Pakistani English. English is divided into two

Diaspora in the world. When people
move from Great Britain towards Australia, North

America and New Zealand are
involved in first Diaspora. When the circulation of English

was arose within speaker of
contrasting group over the world due to colonialism and

political and cultural factors so
than a very little number of people use language.

Different factors like historical,
socio cultural, ideological and linguistic are included in

these two Diaspora. There are a lot
of questions related to English that from where it

brings and how it plays role etc.
Most of the discussion related to it involved standard vs.

no- standard, native vs. non-native
and British vs. American. Now a day’s English is

much more than American and British
native language (B. Kachru; 1992). There is a lot

of controversy between educated and
uneducated like speech of different groups,

traditional group, age group and
gender. There are different dialect in US and other

regions. (Labov; 1998) There is a
lot of difference between the accents of English of

different regions. Accent is
defined as pronunciation of sound, force, pitch and rhythm of

speech. Standard British English
connected with RP accent and has a minor stress.

The alteration among language does
not mean difference between accent and dialect. 

Strevens (1983; 89) states that
mostly teachers of English are puzzling about dialect and

accent. This confusion is
manageable in one sense that in Standard English break down it.

E.g. BBC anchor and reporter get
through regional accent that is mostly noticeable in

Irish and Scotland they all
supposed standard British English speaker as alternative to

American English. The most typical
varieties of English are British and American

English for the aim of education
all through the world.  Other
diversification like

Australian, Canadian and New
Zealand are even now trying to get legitimacy. (Bell and

Kuiper, 1999; Collins and Blair,
1989; Turner, 1997; Hundt, 1998)In Africa and Asia

national varieties English has an
authentic reputation and used for international benefit.

(B. Kachru and Nelson, 1996:75)

7.2        
Research work on Pakistani English

 

India and Pakistan have focal
position in national life. In the subcontinent English dialect came in East
India Company by Queen Elizabeth. In English dialect First is the evangelist
stage, second stage relates with neighborhood request and government approach.
Pakistan and India utilize same example for utilizing English. India has
significantly more settled also, solid artistic writing in India (lyengar 1973;
jussawalla 1985).

 In Pakistan English is supplanted by Urdu in
all spaces yet it doesn’t occurred in India. In Pakistan focal government,
common government, advanced education, exclusive class, tuition based schools
utilize English dialect aside from casual discussion (Rahman 2002: 288-309).

Pakistani scholars include Bapsi
sidhwa, Zulfikar Ghose, Ahmad Ali, Mohsin Hamid, Kamila shamsie have global
notoriety utilize British Standard English. Kachru describes Pakistani English
is in second level and in 1984 Pakistani English was not recognized on the
planet. World class or taught individuals simply utilize British Standard
English and abstain from utilizing highlight of Pakistani English. Presently
the condition is changed yet non local assortments in English assessed it
improper. Just Baumgardner surveyed on logical lines on the worthiness of
Pakistani English (Baumgardner, 1995).

 Prator demonstrates that Pakistani English is
most indiscernible assortment of English (Prator 1968. p.464). Any individual
who can express any assortment of instructed English, however phonologically
non local can expect to be understandable to audience (Smith, Rafiqzad, 1979;
p.57).

As indicated by Tariq Rehman
Pakistani English additionally have sub assortments like other non-local
assortments. Its highlights are indistinguishable to BSE yet some phonological
component contrasts from RP. Kachru portrayed in his exploration that
Indian-ness in Indian English is shared on a huge scale to Bangladesh,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. (1983: p.8-9) there is additionally a idea of
south Asia identified with linguistic.(Emeneau ;1955 Masica;1976) Gerhard
Leitner is a German researcher include Pakistani and Indian English in south
Asia. He doesn’t allude information from Pakistan (Leitner. 2012; p.176-191).
Halliday specified that both Indian and Pakistani speakers are required to fit
in with it instead of go for British or American modular. (Halliday, 1964;
173-174).

After a great deal of research
Pakistan was included the rundown of ESL (English as second dialect) nations
alongside Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore (Campbell et.
al., 1983:42). In 1982, Moag distributed a paper in which Pakistani English not
one or the other incorporate into one nor different assortments (Moag 1982:14).
In 1986 Kachru again extended his idea on south Asia so he included his
exploration Indian, Sri lankan and Pakistani English (kachru; 1986:37).

There is essential contrast amongst
Pakistani and Indian English is identified with religion and social esteems.
For the most part ideas are obtained from Arabic and Persian. It is watched that
Pakistani English ought to have isolate way of life as non-local assortment
(Baumgardner; 1987: p.241-252).

 He gives careful consideration toward learning
English through Pakistani daily paper. To depict the usage of Pakistani daily
paper Baumgardner portray complementation of verbs and descriptive word. Second
article relates with vocabulary semantic includes and did not partitioned
Pakistani English into additionally sub classifications. Baumgardner proceeded
with his work on Pakistani English even after distribution of his work in 1990.
Baumgardner works a considerable measure on the Pakistani English identifying
with its advancement and adequacy towards writer and educators. There are
distinctive scientists who work on Pakistani English included Hina Ashraf and
its co – creators about the plurilingual collection in Pakistani social setting
that will endure different dialects in the country.(Ashraf et.al. 2014; 46)

7.3        
Research work related to preposition

 

Preposition
has been characterized by Quirk et al. (1985: p. 657) as a thing communicating
“a connection between two substances, one being that spoken to by the
prepositional supplement, the other by another piece of the sentence”
(Quirk et al., 1985: 657). Biber et al. (2000) are of the view that
“Relational words are joins which present prepositional expressions. As
the most run of the mill supplement in a prepositional expression is a thing
expression, they can be viewed as a gadget which associates thing phrases with
different structures.” (Biber et al., 2000, p.74).

Distinctive
composes Preposition can be ordered by their constituents or their semantic
parts. In the main sort of grouping, the terms ‘basic, expression, mind
boggling and single or multi-unit, free or bound relational words’ are
utilized. As this examination will ponder the development designs and the
prepositional conduct with its subject and protest, i.e. historic point, I will
draw upon the sorts of relational word as indicated by its structure. Biber et
al. (2000) drew a qualification amongst free and bound relational words:

Free
prepositions have an autonomous importance; the decision of relational word
isn’t needy upon a particular  words in
the specific circumstance. Interestingly, bound relational words regularly have
minimal free significance, and the decision of the relational word relies on
some other word (frequently the former verb). The same prepositional shape can
work as a free or a bound relational word (p.1125).

 

8          
Research methodology

 

This
study is corpus based study and quantitative in nature. Its aim is to check
simple and    compound prepositions is
Pakistani English novels by using Antconc software.

 

9          
Data collection

 

Data
has been collected from English fiction involves novels of Pakistani writer.
There

are
fourteen  novels that have been added in
corpus to check compounding. The

Names
of the novels are:

 

·        
A Case of Exploding Mangoes          by           
Muhammad Hanif

·        
Twilight in Delhi                                 by            Ahmad Ali

·        
An American Brat                               by            Bapsi Sidhwa

·        
Moth Smoke                                      by           
Mohsin Hamid

·        
Novel 15                                            by            Kamila Shamsi

·        
Something to Tell You                      by            Hanif Kurashi

·        
The Black Album                               by          
Hanif Kurashi

·        
The Bride                                            by          
Bapsi Sidhwa

·        
The Crow Eaters                                 by           Bapsi Sidhwa

·        
The Kite Runner                                 by           Khalid Hussaini

·        
Ice Candy Man                                   by           Bapsi sidhwa

·        
Daughter of Destiny                           by           Banzair Bhutto

·        
In other Rooms, Other Wonders        by           Daniyal Muhaudin

·        
Burnt Shadow                                    by           Kamila Shamsie

 

10       Data
analysis

Following
data is taken from Pakistani fiction corpus. Three types of prepositions are checked
in this paper. One is simple preposition and second is compound preposition and
other is phrasal preposition. Frequency is checked by creating word list in
Antconc software. After creating word list one by one prepositions word is
entered in search bar to check its frequency. Total words in corpora that is
used are 1222595.

 

 

                                                                 Table 1

v  Simple prepositions:

Preposition

Frequency

Preposition

Frequency

In

19059

Since

416

On

8789

Of

25985

At

7066

Around

1039

Over

1681

Through

1330

About

2631

Across

431

Under

607

Against

712

off           

1249

To

30569

 

Discussion:

In
table 1 some simple prepositions are given with their frequency. After checking
these frequencies it can be described that simple prepositions are easy to use
and they have more usage.

 

                                                Table
2

v  Compound prepositions:

Prepositions

Frequency

Prepositions

Frequency

Without

621

Within

202

Inside

348

Outside

356

Into

2911

Beneath

313

Below

73

Behind

638

Towards

688

Besides

90

Beyond

129

Onto

91

Along

363

 

 

 

Discussion:

In
table 2 some simple prepositions are given with their frequency. After checking
these frequencies it can be described that compound prepositions are less in
usage.

This
segment investigates the dispersion of the preposition as per their development.
Beginning from the correlation between the basic single words relational words
to the multi-word relational words, it proceeds onward to see the distinction
in dissemination of complex relational words that are diverse as per the
quantity of development units i.e. two word, three word and four word
relational word units.

 

 

                                                Table
3

v  Phrasal prepositions:

Preposition

Frequency

Because
of

116

By
means of

1

On
account of

6

For
the sake of

9

In
opposition to

0

 

 

 

 

 

 Discussion:

In
above table 3 some phrasal prepositions are given with their frequency. After
checking these frequencies it can be described that phrasal prepositions have
very less usage due to its complex use.

11    
Conclusion

Pakistani
English fiction has its own an incentive in the area. English fiction is   advancing the Pakistani English. Pakistani
English swings off from standard since it is in developing stage.  Analyst empowers to recognize utilization of
simple, compound and phrasal relational words. Through investigation it is to
be comprehended that Pakistani scholars for the most part concentrate on
utilizing basic and simple prepositions. the point of research is to watch what
sort of relational word is regularly utilized is satisfied.

12       References

 

·        
Barker, Isaac (1733?) An English Grammar
Shewing the Nature and Grounds of the English Language, In its present State.
With Some general Observations and Directions relating to the Spelling,
Pronouncing, and Writing of it. By Issac Barker. York…

·        
Biber, D. (2000). The Longman Grammar of
Spoken and Written English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

·        
Haque, A.R. (1982) The position and
status of English in Pakistan. In Baumgardner, R.J.

·        
(Ed.) The English language in Pakistan.
Karachi: Oxford University Press.

·        
Kachru, Braj B. (1982). ‘Models for
Non-Native Englishes’. In Kachru ed. 1982: 31-57.

·        
Fang, A.C. (2000). Prepositional
Phrases: Towards the Automatic Determination of their Syntactic Functions.
Journal of Natural Language Engineering 6(02) : pp. 183-201

·        
Moag Rodney. (1986). ‘English as a
Foreign, Second, Native and Basal Languages: a

·        
new taxaonomy of English using
socities’. In Pride ed., p.37.

·        
Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech and J.
Svartvik.(1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Harlow:
Longman Group.

·        
Rahman, T. (1990). Linguistic deviation
as a stylistic device in Pakistani English fiction.Journal of Commonwealth
Literature 48(03): pp. 1-11.

 

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