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Topic: corpus baseapproach;  use of prepositions inPakistan English Novels Submittedto:                                      Dr. BehzadAnwarSubmittedby:                                      TayybaMazharRollno:                                      17221702-004Class:                                      M.Phil.

English (Linguistics-1)     Contents 1     Abstract 32     Introduction. 32.1      Prepositions.

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32.2      Simpleprepositions. 32.3      Compoundprepositions. 32.4      Corpus. 42.5      PakistaniEnglish.

43     Researchobjective. 54     Researchquestion. 65     Significanceof the study. 66     Limitationof study. 67     Literaturereview.

. 67.1      Researchwork in world Englishes.

67.2      Researchwork on Pakistani English. 87.3      Researchwork related to preposition.

118     Researchmethodology. 129     Datacollection. 1210       Dataanalysis. 1311       Conclusion 1712         References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18       1          AbstractThe present study explores wide useof preposition in Pakistani English novels. It is the corpus base research andstudies the frequency of simple, compound and phrasal prepositions. The corpusmethodology has contributed significantly to gain objective and quantitativefindings.

In Pakistani English the preposition has been found to be used morefrequently. The findings of the study correspond closely to that simpleprepositions are frequently used by Pakistani writers in fictions. Keywords:World Englishes, Pakistani English, corpus, preposition 2          Introduction2.1         PrepositionsA Preposition is a Part of Speech set beforedifferent Words, and shows the Relation that   the Word tailing it has to some Word beforeit.

(Barker, 1733?: 22-23)Apreposition is a word which is normally set before a thing or pronoun todemonstrate the last’s connection to some word in the sentence.2.2        Simple prepositionsSimpleprepositions are   words   generally used by prefixing a word to aNoun, an Adjective or an Adverb. For example: in, at, on etc. 2.

3        Compound prepositionsCompoundprepositions words are those relational words which are framed by prefixing therelational word to a thing, a modifier or a qualifier” Examples: above,along, inside, around, sometime recently, behind, underneath, underneath and soon.2.4       Phrasal prepositions  Phrasalprepositions are a progression of words or expressions (get it) that connectionand relate the question of the relational word (a thing or a pronoun) towhatever is left of the sentence. 2.5        Corpus Corpusis an electronic type of gathering of content that is perused by PC through           programming.

It’s thought to be theagent of dialect. Corpus gives more legitimate and adjusted data it indicateswhat is normal and run of the mill. A corpus can give us exact measurements andit can reestablish and call all the data. Corpus can likewise give an immensenumber of cases utilized as a part of genuine correspondence. It helps ingiving target prove.

It can be available to everybody forever. Corpus givesbetter come about through refreshing its product. This theory depicts thatcorpus will enable scientist to compound words in Pakistani English books andspare to time by giving exact outcome.2.6        Pakistani English PakistaniEnglish is a systematized as other non -local assortments.

English is utilizedas second dialect and medium of direction in the workplaces, schools, collegesand Global dealings. Generally individuals of this locale are bilingual in thewake of learning English dialect they end up plainly multilingual. Fundamentalnative language is Punjabi and first dialect is Urdu and afterward seconddialect is English (Hashmi, 1996). English presented English as officialdialect to supplant Persian. The English dialect is keeping up its position sinceautonomy (Haque,1982).There are four sub assortments in PakistaniEnglish.(Rahman,1989 )Variety A  additionally called Anglicized English it contrasts in phonological highlights.

Itincludes western families or journalists with global notoriety. Assortment B isknown as Acrolect. It is contrastingin all highlights from British Standard English aside from lexical measurement.Individuals include assortment B are instructed from English medium schools.

Upper white collar class included heads, columnists and expert individuals.Assortment C is the Mesolect what’smore, it contrasts in all measurements than assortment An and B. Center orupper white collar class get training in Urdu medium schools. Assortment Dknown as Basilect it is minimumcomprehensible for nonnatives. It included assistants, type essayists with lowinstruction. (Rahman, 2007)Writers separate Pakistani English from IndianEnglish in one angle and it identifies with Islam what’s more, Muslim history(Moag 1986, p.37). Distinctive Islamic researchers endeavor to evacuate Englishpart in Pakistan however they fizzled.

General Zia ul Haq actualize Islamicprinciples and present Urdu medium training. Be that as it may, generalMusharraf present English as official dialect. (Mahboob; 2002)  3          Research objective Theaim of this study is to check use of in novels of Pakistani English byusingcorpus. Objective is to get authentic result that could help further inresearch field.

 4          Research question ·        Which type of   preposition is highly used in PakistaniEnglish novels?5          Significance of the study Thisstudy is helpful for student of English linguistic to know about the use ofprepositions in novels and the importance of Pakistani English fiction in thefield ofWorld Englishes.Researchers will understand about the use of preposition byPakistaniwriters.       6          Limitation of study This investigation is therestricted to books of Pakistani authors. Analyst will investigate just the prepositionsutilized as a part of Pakistani fiction and in no other field. Analysis done inthis proposition is subjective in nature.

7          Literature review7.1               Research work inworld Englishes Theexposure of three broad categories of regional varieties in English has beenscattered. Native speaker or where English isused as most prominent language involving into first category. People move towardcountries like Australia, Canada, UK, USA, and New Zealand from Great Britain. Thecategories of second set have spread in the countries where English has a long history,innovative writing, and legal status. It involved India, Nigeria, and Singapore, thePhilippine and other countries (B. Kachru, 1985; Crystal 1987, p.357 ).

Varieties thatinvolved third set are in advance countries. English is used for international gain than itbuilds uniformity and creative innovation. It involved population of Japan, China, andKorea. These set of varieties are called inner, outer and expanding circles. (B.

Kachru;1985) There is no group of any one circleor specific variety in term world Englishes. It simply indicates historical fact dispersaland inauguration of English around the world. It takes into account the regions of SouthEast Asia, South Asia and East Asia but does not concentrate on South East Asia.There are diverse types of publications in World Englishes. (B.

Kachru 1982b)Writers work on specific region in different varieties of English. Bautista (1997; 2000)worked on Philippine English. Bolton (2003) worked on Chinese English. Stanlaw (2004) onJapanese English. B.

Kachru (1983) work on Indian English and Rahman (1990) work onPakistani English. English is divided into two Diaspora in the world. When peoplemove from Great Britain towards Australia, North America and New Zealand areinvolved in first Diaspora.

When the circulation of English was arose within speaker ofcontrasting group over the world due to colonialism and political and cultural factors sothan a very little number of people use language. Different factors like historical,socio cultural, ideological and linguistic are included in these two Diaspora. There are a lotof questions related to English that from where it brings and how it plays role etc.Most of the discussion related to it involved standard vs. no- standard, native vs.

non-nativeand British vs. American. Now a day’s English is much more than American and Britishnative language (B. Kachru; 1992).

There is a lot of controversy between educated anduneducated like speech of different groups, traditional group, age group andgender. There are different dialect in US and other regions. (Labov; 1998) There is alot of difference between the accents of English of different regions. Accent isdefined as pronunciation of sound, force, pitch and rhythm of speech.

Standard British Englishconnected with RP accent and has a minor stress. The alteration among language doesnot mean difference between accent and dialect. Strevens (1983; 89) states thatmostly teachers of English are puzzling about dialect and accent. This confusion ismanageable in one sense that in Standard English break down it. E.g. BBC anchor and reporter getthrough regional accent that is mostly noticeable in Irish and Scotland they allsupposed standard British English speaker as alternative to American English.

The most typicalvarieties of English are British and American English for the aim of educationall through the world.  Otherdiversification like Australian, Canadian and NewZealand are even now trying to get legitimacy. (Bell and Kuiper, 1999; Collins and Blair,1989; Turner, 1997; Hundt, 1998)In Africa and Asia national varieties English has anauthentic reputation and used for international benefit. (B. Kachru and Nelson, 1996:75)7.2        Research work on Pakistani English India and Pakistan have focalposition in national life. In the subcontinent English dialect came in EastIndia Company by Queen Elizabeth.

In English dialect First is the evangeliststage, second stage relates with neighborhood request and government approach.Pakistan and India utilize same example for utilizing English. India hassignificantly more settled also, solid artistic writing in India (lyengar 1973;jussawalla 1985). In Pakistan English is supplanted by Urdu inall spaces yet it doesn’t occurred in India.

In Pakistan focal government,common government, advanced education, exclusive class, tuition based schoolsutilize English dialect aside from casual discussion (Rahman 2002: 288-309).Pakistani scholars include Bapsisidhwa, Zulfikar Ghose, Ahmad Ali, Mohsin Hamid, Kamila shamsie have globalnotoriety utilize British Standard English. Kachru describes Pakistani Englishis in second level and in 1984 Pakistani English was not recognized on theplanet. World class or taught individuals simply utilize British StandardEnglish and abstain from utilizing highlight of Pakistani English. Presentlythe condition is changed yet non local assortments in English assessed itimproper. Just Baumgardner surveyed on logical lines on the worthiness ofPakistani English (Baumgardner, 1995). Prator demonstrates that Pakistani English ismost indiscernible assortment of English (Prator 1968. p.

464). Any individualwho can express any assortment of instructed English, however phonologicallynon local can expect to be understandable to audience (Smith, Rafiqzad, 1979;p.57). As indicated by Tariq RehmanPakistani English additionally have sub assortments like other non-localassortments. Its highlights are indistinguishable to BSE yet some phonologicalcomponent contrasts from RP. Kachru portrayed in his exploration thatIndian-ness in Indian English is shared on a huge scale to Bangladesh,Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. (1983: p.

8-9) there is additionally a idea ofsouth Asia identified with linguistic.(Emeneau ;1955 Masica;1976) GerhardLeitner is a German researcher include Pakistani and Indian English in southAsia. He doesn’t allude information from Pakistan (Leitner. 2012; p.176-191).Halliday specified that both Indian and Pakistani speakers are required to fitin with it instead of go for British or American modular. (Halliday, 1964;173-174).

After a great deal of researchPakistan was included the rundown of ESL (English as second dialect) nationsalongside Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore (Campbell et.al., 1983:42).

In 1982, Moag distributed a paper in which Pakistani English notone or the other incorporate into one nor different assortments (Moag 1982:14).In 1986 Kachru again extended his idea on south Asia so he included hisexploration Indian, Sri lankan and Pakistani English (kachru; 1986:37). There is essential contrast amongstPakistani and Indian English is identified with religion and social esteems.For the most part ideas are obtained from Arabic and Persian.

It is watched thatPakistani English ought to have isolate way of life as non-local assortment(Baumgardner; 1987: p.241-252). He gives careful consideration toward learningEnglish through Pakistani daily paper. To depict the usage of Pakistani dailypaper Baumgardner portray complementation of verbs and descriptive word. Secondarticle relates with vocabulary semantic includes and did not partitionedPakistani English into additionally sub classifications.

Baumgardner proceededwith his work on Pakistani English even after distribution of his work in 1990.Baumgardner works a considerable measure on the Pakistani English identifyingwith its advancement and adequacy towards writer and educators. There aredistinctive scientists who work on Pakistani English included Hina Ashraf andits co – creators about the plurilingual collection in Pakistani social settingthat will endure different dialects in the country.(Ashraf et.

al. 2014; 46)7.3        Research work related to preposition Prepositionhas been characterized by Quirk et al. (1985: p. 657) as a thing communicating”a connection between two substances, one being that spoken to by theprepositional supplement, the other by another piece of the sentence”(Quirk et al., 1985: 657).

Biber et al. (2000) are of the view that”Relational words are joins which present prepositional expressions. Asthe most run of the mill supplement in a prepositional expression is a thingexpression, they can be viewed as a gadget which associates thing phrases withdifferent structures.” (Biber et al.

, 2000, p.74).Distinctivecomposes Preposition can be ordered by their constituents or their semanticparts. In the main sort of grouping, the terms ‘basic, expression, mindboggling and single or multi-unit, free or bound relational words’ areutilized. As this examination will ponder the development designs and theprepositional conduct with its subject and protest, i.e.

historic point, I willdraw upon the sorts of relational word as indicated by its structure. Biber etal. (2000) drew a qualification amongst free and bound relational words: Freeprepositions have an autonomous importance; the decision of relational wordisn’t needy upon a particular  words inthe specific circumstance.

Interestingly, bound relational words regularly haveminimal free significance, and the decision of the relational word relies onsome other word (frequently the former verb). The same prepositional shape canwork as a free or a bound relational word (p.1125). 8          Research methodology Thisstudy is corpus based study and quantitative in nature. Its aim is to checksimple and    compound prepositions isPakistani English novels by using Antconc software. 9          Data collection Datahas been collected from English fiction involves novels of Pakistani writer.Therearefourteen  novels that have been added incorpus to check compounding. TheNamesof the novels are: ·        A Case of Exploding Mangoes          by           Muhammad Hanif·        Twilight in Delhi                                 by            Ahmad Ali·        An American Brat                               by            Bapsi Sidhwa·        Moth Smoke                                      by           Mohsin Hamid·        Novel 15                                            by            Kamila Shamsi·        Something to Tell You                      by            Hanif Kurashi·        The Black Album                               by          Hanif Kurashi·        The Bride                                            by          Bapsi Sidhwa·        The Crow Eaters                                 by           Bapsi Sidhwa·        The Kite Runner                                 by           Khalid Hussaini·        Ice Candy Man                                   by           Bapsi sidhwa·        Daughter of Destiny                           by           Banzair Bhutto·        In other Rooms, Other Wonders        by           Daniyal Muhaudin·        Burnt Shadow                                    by           Kamila Shamsie 10       DataanalysisFollowingdata is taken from Pakistani fiction corpus.

Three types of prepositions are checkedin this paper. One is simple preposition and second is compound preposition andother is phrasal preposition. Frequency is checked by creating word list inAntconc software. After creating word list one by one prepositions word isentered in search bar to check its frequency. Total words in corpora that isused are 1222595.

                                                                   Table 1v  Simple prepositions: Preposition Frequency Preposition Frequency In 19059 Since 416 On 8789 Of 25985 At 7066 Around 1039 Over 1681 Through 1330 About 2631 Across 431 Under 607 Against 712 off            1249 To 30569  Discussion:Intable 1 some simple prepositions are given with their frequency. After checkingthese frequencies it can be described that simple prepositions are easy to useand they have more usage.                                                 Table2v  Compound prepositions: Prepositions Frequency Prepositions Frequency Without 621 Within 202 Inside 348 Outside 356 Into 2911 Beneath 313 Below 73 Behind 638 Towards 688 Besides 90 Beyond 129 Onto 91 Along 363      Discussion:Intable 2 some simple prepositions are given with their frequency. After checkingthese frequencies it can be described that compound prepositions are less inusage.Thissegment investigates the dispersion of the preposition as per their development.

Beginning from the correlation between the basic single words relational wordsto the multi-word relational words, it proceeds onward to see the distinctionin dissemination of complex relational words that are diverse as per thequantity of development units i.e. two word, three word and four wordrelational word units.

                                                  Table3v  Phrasal prepositions: Preposition Frequency Because of 116 By means of 1 On account of 6 For the sake of 9 In opposition to 0       Discussion:Inabove table 3 some phrasal prepositions are given with their frequency. Afterchecking these frequencies it can be described that phrasal prepositions havevery less usage due to its complex use.11    ConclusionPakistaniEnglish fiction has its own an incentive in the area. English fiction is   advancing the Pakistani English. PakistaniEnglish swings off from standard since it is in developing stage.

  Analyst empowers to recognize utilization ofsimple, compound and phrasal relational words. Through investigation it is tobe comprehended that Pakistani scholars for the most part concentrate onutilizing basic and simple prepositions. the point of research is to watch whatsort of relational word is regularly utilized is satisfied.12       References ·        Barker, Isaac (1733?) An English GrammarShewing the Nature and Grounds of the English Language, In its present State.

With Some general Observations and Directions relating to the Spelling,Pronouncing, and Writing of it. By Issac Barker. York…·        Biber, D. (2000). The Longman Grammar ofSpoken and Written English.

Essex: Pearson Education Limited.·        Haque, A.R.

(1982) The position andstatus of English in Pakistan. In Baumgardner, R.J. ·        (Ed.) The English language in Pakistan.

Karachi: Oxford University Press.·        Kachru, Braj B. (1982).

‘Models forNon-Native Englishes’. In Kachru ed. 1982: 31-57.·        Fang, A.C. (2000). PrepositionalPhrases: Towards the Automatic Determination of their Syntactic Functions.

Journal of Natural Language Engineering 6(02) : pp. 183-201·        Moag Rodney. (1986). ‘English as aForeign, Second, Native and Basal Languages: a ·        new taxaonomy of English usingsocities’.

In Pride ed., p.37.·        Quirk, R., S.

Greenbaum, G. Leech and J.Svartvik.

(1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Harlow:Longman Group.

·        Rahman, T. (1990). Linguistic deviationas a stylistic device in Pakistani English fiction.

Journal of CommonwealthLiterature 48(03): pp. 1-11. 

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