Theory Critique of Crabb and Hawkins Jeremy Poling Liberty University Integration Dr. Crabb suggests that there are four viewpoints to integrating spirituality and psychology. The first being “Separate but Equal” This viewpoint ascertains that psychology and spirituality do not mix any more than if a person needs a filling for a cavity or the excising of their wisdom teeth, they do not peruse the scripture for direction the person goes to a dentist. This view is not solid for its very premise is flawed. When dealing with man’s troubling emotions and thinking scripture has much to say about this.
For example in 1 Cor. 10:5, we are directed to control our thought life (Holy Bible). The second view “Tossed Salad” is acceptable in that it blends theology and psychology. It fails in that it is not careful in checking secular concepts in light of Biblical truth. The third view “Nothing Buttery”, fails in that it disregards psychology altogether. This view says that all that is needed is Christ. The fourth “Spoiling the Egyptians”, is the most balanced of the four approaches (Crabb, 1977). This approach teaches that psychology is under the authority of God’s word.
The bible is God’s infallible, inerrant, inspired revelation. Scripture is to have priority over non-biblical opinion in a functional capacity. Crabb veers away from the traditional teaching that man is a tri- part creature and suggests that man has a two part division: the body or material side and the spirit and soul belonging to the immaterial side (p. 88). Crabb aptly discerns that most patients seek counseling because of the self-centered desire to be happy. He explains astutely that the path to true happiness is to become Christ like. Dr.
Crabb explains the goal of counseling is spiritual and psychological maturity. There is concern also to help people to enter into greater worship and an affective life of service. Maturity involves immediate obedience and long range character growth (p. 23). Dr. Crabb’s seven stage model involves identifying where wrong belief was learned, encouraging expression of emotions surrounding belief, supporting the client as they change their assumptions, teaching the client what to fill their head with, securing a commitment to act on the basis of the newly earned assumption, plan what your client will do differently now that their thinking is changed and the identification of the lack of sin-related feelings and the presence of “spiritual feelings”. Dr. Hawkins’ model for the counseling process and the description of the person is diagrammed using concentric circles (Hawkins, 2011). The first layer is where the core is: human spirit, image of God etc. The second layer consists of the soul – thoughts, will, conscience, feeling.
The third layer consist of the body. The fourth layer consists of temporal systems such as family, friends, church, society, government, economy, and education. The fifth layer consists of supernatural systems such as: God, good angels, demons, and Satan. Hawkins uses a four-phase model grid for tracking process. Phase1 is where the counselor listens to the person talk and seeks to understand. Phase 2 is where one tracks what the patient is saying and sets the direction and proposes a plan of action.
In phase 3 one directs the plan of action from the information provided and seeks to have client take ownership. In phase 4 one supports the commitments to change through arranging for accountability. All of this takes place in an atmosphere that is penetrated by love. Evaluation of Strengths and Weaknesses Dr. Crabb’s seven stage model is well put together and easily used. Hawkins concentric circles is a great illustration of the human personality. Hawkins model for tracking process is a great guide.
Both men rely much on God’s guidance to lead in changing hurting humanity. Crabb’s theory is much more exhaustive and detailed whereas Hawkin’s seems to have been presented in the condensed form. Personal Reflection and Application Crabb’s description on how problems develop which are unreachable goals, external circumstances and fear of failure reminds me of where this student was. My father was a jealous and cruel man until he allowed the Lord to change his life. My dream from the time I was 14 years old was to be a minister of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
When I was 14, I was invited to speak to a youth group. When I came home that night my father told me I was worthless and had no business doing what I had done. He said I was just trying to be a “big-shot”. For many years I was hindered by fearing failure and having unreachable goals until the Lord let me know that He is for me, who can be against me? References Crabb, L. (1977). Effective Biblcal Counseling. Grand Rapids : Zondervan. Hawkins, R. (2011, November 1). Strategy for Intervention. Lynchburg, Va. , U. S. Holy Bible. (n. d. ). King James Version.