Arthur Miller, the writer of The Crucible was involved in communist activities during the Cold War in the United States which, sing the historical context brought him to tribunal. This demonisation of people who expressed different political positions materialized by a enchantress Hunt impregnates the drama in the sense that the writer compares his state of affairs to the 1 of the 100s of 1000s guiltless adult females that were sometimes killed for the interest of personal satisfaction. This will to label people and name for abomination when person ‘s ideas and sentiments differ from societal conventions is symbolized in the drama with characters like Goody Putnam or Danforth who represent Miller ‘s personalisation of opinion by both society and persons.
Peoples convicted of witchery belonged to the Puritan society which is known for its badness and its devotedness to Christianity. The environment is therefore propitious to all kinds of opinions. It is for illustration the instance when John Proctor is asked why he does non go to Church every Sunday: “ In the book of records that Mr Parris keeps, I note that you are seldom in the church on Sabbath Day ” ( Miller 53 ) . Hale here makes an premise that Proctor is non a good Christian since he is seldom at the church. He does non inquire whether John is a good male parent or if he helps his neighbors, all he cares about is whether he is physically present at the office every hebdomad. This emphasizes the importance of the societal environment on one ‘s repute. Nowadays, in broad states like France for illustration, the factors that determine whether a individual is good or non might be his frequentations, his generousness or his engagement in the community. In the Salem of the seventeenth century, what makes person a good individual is first of all Christianity and the attending at the Church. Opinion by society depends on the societal criterions and conventions that create an ideal citizen to which everyone tries to resemble every bit much as possible. In this precise historical context, this ideal would be a married adult male with kids, all baptized, that would travel to the Church every Sunday, respect all of the commandments and work hard on his piece of land without needfully being rich. Since no 1 in Salem wholly corresponds to this portrayal, people justice and accuse each other of non being good Christians. It is in this context propitious to opinion of others that Miller decided to put in his secret plan.
During the Cold War, a panic run was led through the United States to demonise communism and the USSR. A Manichaean myth was blooming demoing the ideological war that opposed both world powers as us versus them, good versus immorality. The exact same state of affairs is present in The Crucible when in the testimonies and inquiries from the justice there is perfectly no infinite for person like John Proctor who is neither wholly good nor evil. From the Judgess ‘ point of position, you are either on God of the Devil ‘s side. Peoples convicted of witchery normally confess under anguish or because they merely do n’t desire to decease. The latter instance is normally a prevarication that permits to get away decease but involves person else ‘s name. This is for illustration the instance of Tituba who, under the force per unit area of Hale ‘s inquiries names other adult females who she says she saw with the Devil: “ Aye, sir, a good Christian ” ( 37 ) and “ I do n’t cognize, sir, but the Devil got him legion enchantresss ” ( 39 ) . This illustration shows all the lip service of people who call themselves good and license judgment others, but when the state of affairs gets warm, they are capable of anything that would salvage them, including purchasing their freedom with person else ‘s life. It is the same for Goody Putnam whose function in the drama is to do a relation to witchcraft to everything she sees. She wants to convict person for her babes ‘ decease and the reaching of Reverend Hale is a good manner to turn out herself it is non her mistake if she can non give birth to a vigorous babe. She therefore tries to acquire involved in the enquiry and does non waver to give “ grounds ” of the guilt of whoever is named by Abigail and the misss: “ I knew it! Goody Osburn were midwife to me three times. I begged you, Thomas, did I non? I begged him non to name Osburn because I feared her. My babes ever shrivelled in her custodies! ” ( 39 ) . Goody Putnam ne’er mentioned Goody Osburn ‘s name before Tituba in the drama. This quotation mark shows how some people dare justice others and seek to hammer them down for personal satisfaction. Those who like Goody Putnam are non suspected of being evil because they are at the Church every Sunday are, at least in this drama, the 1s whose psyche is the most blackened. This state of affairs can be compared to Miller ‘s period of clip, when people like Senator McCarthy who was far from being exemplar still convicted creative persons for “ un-American activities ” . The writer fustigates this attitude by giving the reader the feeling that Goody Putnam for illustration or Judge Danforth are simple minded people. Those they convict, like John Proctor or Rebecca Nurse are non perfect but are at least honorable with themselves until proved otherwise. Throughout the drama, we ne’er see either of them ptyalizing on person else or seeking to convey problem to anyone. This sort of character might stand for Arthur Miller ‘s ideal ; person that does non allow himself to judge others since no 1 is perfect. John and Rebecca ‘s decease at the terminal of the drama might symbolize the writer ‘s wish to stand for them as sufferer who died for the thoughts and moral values they defended and therefore convey the understanding of the reader. The Crucible is a manner for the dramatist to convey the reader ‘s attending on how opinions may be unsafe and stop up like a snowball consequence. The Judgess Danforth and Hathorne already had their thought on John Proctor when he came to seek to salvage his married woman, which means nil could hold twisted his destiny. He was condemned to decease the minute he entered the tribunal because of Parris ‘s record of attending at church.
The bench system is represented as disused and wholly subjective in The Crucible in the sense that the Judgess do non demo any subjectiveness and that people are sent to decease with no cogent evidence of their association to devilish activities. Sing this drama is an fable of what happened in the United States during the Cold War, Miller explicitly criticizes the tests of all those who were convicted of un-American activities. The ground that took Giles ‘ married woman to prison for illustration shows how arbitrary the determinations taken by the Judgess were. The opinions were non based on the quality and veracity of grounds or testimonies like for Elizabeth. Had they thought more of it for a 2nd, Hathorne and Danforth could hold guessed Abigail might hold seen Mary put a acerate leaf in the poppet and therefore created the whole mask that followed. Get downing from the point that Mr Parris is a curate and that John Proctor is non considered a good Christian, there is 90 per centum of opportunity that Proctor will lose his test. The characters of Danforth and Hathorne represent justness as Arthur Miller sees it ; a group of pretentious old work forces who believe about anything every bit long as it fits to their sentiment. When Hale asks Danforth to prorogue John and Rebecca ‘s executing, all he can reply is that it ‘s impossible since other people before them have been executed. This illustration shows Danforth ‘s incompetency and his deficiency of statements which he compensates with a composite of high quality. The Judgess know their determination can non be questioned and they do non mention to anyone about what they decided so they are the supreme authorization of the tribunal and therefore, can make up one’s mind whatever pleases them. John and Giles ‘ want to salvage their married womans with testimonies are vain in the sense that all that entreaties to the Judgess about this list is more names of people who can be convicted of witchery. It seems that Hathorne and Danforth want to give ampleness to their test and therefore to their reputes of good Christian Judgess that do non demo commiseration for God ‘s enemies. The lip service of this spiritual centred society arises in the whole drama and through many different characters, like the Judgess who, alternatively of praying for their psyche and genuinely follow the love messages in the Bible, prefer to put to death people who are thought of covering with the Devil but against whom no concrete cogent evidence can be held, for the interest of the Lord ‘s power. Right before the executing, Rebecca throws a warning at the Judgess who she knows attention more about their glorification than following what the Bible says: “ Let you fear nil! Another opinion waits us all! A A» . Harmonizing to the holy book, God will make up one’s mind who goes to Heaven and Hell on Judgement Day, and Rebecca tells John she is confident that because justness was non made in this universe, it will be in the other. She is more afraid of God ‘s penalty than an executing decided by Judgess who trample His name. This last sentence brings sedateness and a heroic touch to John and Rebecca ‘s executing. It is thrown like a prognostication, which sing what happened to those who were responsible of their deceases and how history remembers of the Salem enchantress tests, can be compared to Jacques de Molay ‘s expletive over Pope Clement V and King Philippe le Bel right before his executing. This shows Miller ‘s will to turn out that true justness ever triumphs, no affair in what signifier.
The Crucible can be considered as a skiagraphy of the American society during the Cold War. Fear and panic promoted by the authorities disturbed the balance of justness in the United States in the sense that harmonizing to Arthur Miller, it had reached the degree of freedom adult females who were accused of witchery in the seventeenth century had. The historical context of the drama is a metaphor of what Miller truly wishes to knock, and his pick to prorogue his jobs to another period of clip might be a restraint due to censorship. However, the dramatist outrage towards opinions, either by society or persons is extremely tangible throughout the narrative. Miller openly criticizes the lip service of spiritual people and political relations but besides everyone who wishes to heighten others ‘ jobs but non theirs. Whether he treats the subject of opinion through personifications or by indicating out the whole paradox of this attitude, Miller does non conceal his disgust for falseness and jeer.