The topic of
political repressions during the communistic regimes is one of the most
important issues which has been discussed up till now. It was an act against
human rights and humanity in general which implies political motives and is
manifested in expulsion, deprivation of liberty, denationalization, coercion to
labor and the most terrific – death penalty.
obvious that the main reason of repressions’ occurrence is political struggle
for power in state and the harsher this struggle is, the greater a scale of
repressions. Thus, to explain the scopes of the repressive policy in the USSR
and other countries, it is necessary to understand which political forces acted
at certain historical period. This essay is mostly based on analysis of
mortality rates during the times of dictators governing following Lenin’s idea
of socialism. Unfortunately, people do not realize the real scales of their
unlimited power and its consequences; further the essay will open the topic in
deeper way, presenting the relevant data.
first wave of repressions started in 1917, in the USSR, mostly represented by
the “Red Terror”, which became the beginning of terrifying acts against
humanity from 20s until the death of Stalin and even later. The largest
action of the Red Terror was the shooting in Petrograd of 512 representatives
of the elite (former dignitaries, ministers, professors). At the same time the
other countries had only started finding the way to communism. And a little later
in China was formed communistic party (CPC).
repressions in the USSR started growing. Prime example of that – dekulakization
(forced eviction of peasants and the seizure of their property). According to the historian and
reporter Zemskov, about 4 million people were completely dekulakized (the exact
number is difficult to establish) of which in 1930-1940th, a kulak link was
visited by 2.5 million, during this period in exile died 600 thousand people,
the vast majority died in 1930-1933. Death rates among special resettles
exceeded the birth rate from 7.8 times (for “old-timers”) to 40 times
(for “new settlers”). Moreover, percentage of Poles and other
national minorities who lived in the USSR extremely decreased on 25% because of
dekulakization. On the contrary, in 1930 in Vietnam was created communistic party
(VCP) and a few regions of Africa had chosen to build communistic regime.
That is then
(1932-1933) a huge famine took the lives of 7 million people. According to certain
historians it was artificially made hunger by Stalin’s government in purpose of
elimination of particular peoples. In the same years notorious government agency
(GULAG) intensified: about 2 million people were preparing for deportation. In
total in 1933 in the kulak exile around 151 601 people died.
was just the beginning of mass terror. The harshest wave of repression took place
in 1937-1938 years and was called the “Great Terror”. During those two years, 1
575 259 people were arrested for the affairs of the NKVD authorities, for all
types of crimes, of whom 681,692 people were sentenced to be shot. Estimates
for the victims vary greatly. Pursuant to certain reports, the number of
victims of the Great Terror is over 1.5 million people. According to the KGB of
the USSR, in 1937-1938, 1372329 people were arrested of which 681692 were shot.
In 1937-1938 in the camps 115922 prisoners died.