The models of FCVs 70: Honda Clarity Fuel

 The State ofCalifornia Through aproject called Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), California offers up to USD 7,000 in EV rebates for the purchaseor lease of eligible zero-emissions and plug-in hybrid vehicles. TheCenter for Sustainable Energy (CSE) administers CVRP for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 70. A rebateof USD 5,000 is available for the following models of FCVs 70: HondaClarity Fuel Cell                   (2017), Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell (2015 – 2017), Toyota Mirai Fuel CellVehicle (2016 – 2017).

A rebate of USD 2,500 is available for the following models of BEVs 70: BLUECAR Bluecar(2016, Fleets only), BMW i3 (2014 – 2017), BYD e6 (2012 – 2017, Fleets only),Chevrolet Bolt EV (2017), Chevrolet Spark EV (2014 – 2016), Fiat 500e (2013 –2017), Ford Focus Electric (2012 – 2018), Honda Clarity Electric (2017),Hyundai Ioniq Electric (2017), Kia Soul EV (2015 – 2017), Mercedes-Benz B250e(2014 – 2017), Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2012, 2014, 2016, 2017), Nissan LEAF (2011 – 2017),smart (2011, 2013 – 2017), Tesla Model 3 (2017), Tesla Model S (2012 – 2017),Tesla Model X (2016 – 2017), Volkswagen e-Golf (2015 – 2017)A rebate of USD 1,500 is available for thefollowing models of PHEVs 70: Audi A3 e-tron(2016 – 2017), BMW 530e (2018), Cadillac ELR (2014, 2016), Chevrolet Volt (2012– 2018, ONLY Low Emissions Package), Chrysler Pacifica (2017 – 2018), FordC-MAX Energi (2013 – 2017), Ford Fusion Energi (2013 – 2018), Hyundai Sonata Plug-inHybrid (2016 – 2017), Kia Optima Plug-in Hybrid (2017), Mitsubishi OutlanderPHEV (2018), Toyota Prius Prime (2017), Volvo S90 T8 (2018), Volvo XC60 T8(2018), Volvo XC90 T8 (2018)The State of California supports the development of HRSs. California has co-funded 62 HRS projects as of October 2017via a program called “AB 8” 71.  Through the AB 8 program, $20 million isallocated annually until there are atleast 100 publicly available hydrogen-fueling stations in California 72.EV charging stations are fundedby California through the CaliforniaEnergy Commission’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle TechnologyProgram (ARFVTP) 74.

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38.8percent of statewide total public charging sites and 37.9 percent of chargingoutlets have been funded by ARFVTP 74.As of April 2017, California has 29 Open-Retail HRSs and isexpected to have 37 HRSs be open by the end of 2017 73. Table25shows the number of HRSs in California through from 2013 to 2016. Table 25.

Number of HRSs in California from 2013 to2016 73 Year Number of HRSs 2013 9 2014 10 2015 12 2016 29 2017 (expected by the end of the year) 37 As of June 2017, there are about 12,000 publiclyaccessible charging ports at more than 3,600 charging stations in California 75.As of April 2017, more than 1,600 FCVs had active registrations in California 73.Table26shows the number of FCVS on-the-road in California through 2013-2016 73.Table 26.

Number of FCVs in California (2013-2017) Year Number of FCVs 2013 125 2014 152 2015 179 2016 925 2017 (as of April) 1,600  As of May2017, about 300,000 ZEV and PHEVs have been sold in California 74.Assuming the sales of BEVs and PHEVs have been zero before 2009, Table27shows the number of electric vehicles based on the number of new registrationseach year. The data used was from California Auto Outlooks covering the fourth quarter of 2013 76and the first quarter of 2017 77.Table 27. Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs in California(2009-2017) 76, 77 Year Cumulative number of BEVs and PHEVs   2009 772      (100% BEV, 0% PHEV) 2010 1169    (92% BEV, 8% PHEV) 2011 8153    (78% BEV, 22% PHEV) 2012 29051  (43% BEV, 57% PHEV) 2013 71596   (48% BEV, 52% PHEV) 2014 131081 (49% BEV, 51% PHEV) 2015 193298 (51% BEV, 49% PHEV) 2016 268463 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV) 2017 (first quarter) 292733 (52% BEV, 48% PHEV)  Based on the projections, California expects tohave 13,400 and 37,400 FCVs onthe road in 2020 and 2023, respectively 73.

Statewide Station Projections show 62HRSs in California in 2020 73.California targets a long-term goal of reaching 1.5 million ZEVs on roadways by2025 74.Analysis and discussionReviewing theincentives allocated for the deployment of EVs and development ofcharging/refueling infrastructure, it can beseen that the structure of the support for vehicle purchase andinfrastructure development is different. Whilein the case of purchase subsidy, the consumer stakeholder owns the vehicle andthe government provides the direct subsidy, in the case of charginginfrastructure and refueling stations, a model of public-private partnership isfollowed in many countries although some countries tend so support thedevelopment of charging/refueling infrastructure with direct subsidies to theinvestor. Incentives for EVs purchase arethen direct economic incentives and incentives for charging infrastructure areof direct collaborative and direct economic incentives.

Direct incentive meansthat the subsidy is transferred to the consumerin monetary value 12 andcollaborative incentive means the government plays a collaborative andmanagerial role in developing infrastructure 13.

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