The enclosure movement if taken from what Marx said and whatLazonick further described in his paper is the process of where land, small orlarge, which was communally or semi communally owned was taken in multiplemanners for private ownership and was in a very literal sense then enclosed offfrom each other.
This process as described by many classical economicalhistorians as a byproduct of supply and demand which led to better crop yieldand more employment is viewed from a sociological lens, as to how the movementwas a tool of proletariatization and thus primitive accumulation. So in contextto the origins of capitalism and primitive accumulation the enclosure movementis indentified as key point in history in this paper, as before the time of”industrialization” and the enclosure movement, land was communally owned and peopleworked on it to provide for themselves, so the concept of producing productsfor capital was not present before this time, but as soon as industrializationand the enclosure movement came about it resulted in a large concept of thoseself employed people becoming employed by this small group of people whoprivately owned most of the lands, so the concept of a commodity called thelabor force was introduced which could be hired for a wage to work to produceproducts which were made to be sold in the market. So the class division andessentially the origins can be indicated towards the enclosure movement as thepeople lost their means of production and were now being hired to work on themfor a wage. Before the enclosure movement under the feudal systemopen-field agriculture prevailed this is late 12th and early 13thcentury as pointed out in the paper. In typical Manors small strips were givento the commons or peasants for open-field agriculture these ranged from 10 to50 acres while the lords held command off a specific land for them where whatwas cultivated by the commons was meant for the lord himself. Even though this presenteda form of enclosures itself it never came into conflict with open-fieldagriculture and people were able to fend for themselves. So let us view in whatforms did this whole process take place and how a few individuals and the statewere able to take private ownership of land that was never theirs.
At the sametime as this common folk were cultivating land outside of these manors and wereexchanging pieces of land with each other gaining more and more communal landand enclosing it to become their own private property. So in the paper Lazonickoutlines four methods in which land was enclosed off to become privateproperty. Firstly individuals, as pointed out, had started taking control ofland by themselves and had started exchanging and consolidating it.
Then camethe destruction of the open-field agriculture system through firstly through theconversion of cultivable land to pastures by the land lords then secondlythrough enclosure agreements between large landowners. Finally the last toolused to wipe out open-field agriculture was policy by Parliament to transformagriculture. The enclosure enteredits final stages in the late 18th and early 19th century andit is at this point where the open-field agriculture system came to an end.