The multiple manners for private ownership and was

The enclosure movement if taken from what Marx said and what
Lazonick further described in his paper is the process of where land, small or
large, which was communally or semi communally owned was taken in multiple
manners for private ownership and was in a very literal sense then enclosed off
from each other. This process as described by many classical economical
historians as a byproduct of supply and demand which led to better crop yield
and more employment is viewed from a sociological lens, as to how the movement
was a tool of proletariatization and thus primitive accumulation. So in context
to the origins of capitalism and primitive accumulation the enclosure movement
is indentified as key point in history in this paper, as before the time of
“industrialization” and the enclosure movement, land was communally owned and people
worked on it to provide for themselves, so the concept of producing products
for capital was not present before this time, but as soon as industrialization
and the enclosure movement came about it resulted in a large concept of those
self employed people becoming employed by this small group of people who
privately owned most of the lands, so the concept of a commodity called the
labor force was introduced which could be hired for a wage to work to produce
products which were made to be sold in the market. So the class division and
essentially the origins can be indicated towards the enclosure movement as the
people lost their means of production and were now being hired to work on them
for a wage.

Before the enclosure movement under the feudal system
open-field agriculture prevailed this is late 12th and early 13th
century as pointed out in the paper. In typical Manors small strips were given
to the commons or peasants for open-field agriculture these ranged from 10 to
50 acres while the lords held command off a specific land for them where what
was cultivated by the commons was meant for the lord himself. Even though this presented
a form of enclosures itself it never came into conflict with open-field
agriculture and people were able to fend for themselves. So let us view in what
forms did this whole process take place and how a few individuals and the state
were able to take private ownership of land that was never theirs. At the same
time as this common folk were cultivating land outside of these manors and were
exchanging pieces of land with each other gaining more and more communal land
and enclosing it to become their own private property. So in the paper Lazonick
outlines four methods in which land was enclosed off to become private
property. Firstly individuals, as pointed out, had started taking control of
land by themselves and had started exchanging and consolidating it. Then came
the destruction of the open-field agriculture system through firstly through the
conversion of cultivable land to pastures by the land lords then secondly
through enclosure agreements between large landowners. Finally the last tool
used to wipe out open-field agriculture was policy by Parliament to transform
agriculture. The enclosure entered
its final stages in the late 18th and early 19th century and
it is at this point where the open-field agriculture system came to an end.

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