The into a picture. Most modern motherboards feature

graphics card, also called a video card, is the hardware that displays 2D and
3D graphics on a connected screen – this is done by taking the binary data from
the CPU to turn pixels into a picture. Most modern motherboards feature
integrated graphics built onto the board which can easily handle the creation
of 2D images, but using a separate graphics card will override the integrated
graphics and should be much more powerful for 3D graphics. The graphics card is
similar to a motherboard as it is also a PCB with its own BIOS, RAM, and
processor – the graphical processing unit (GPU), which is like a CPU but it is
designed to complete complex calculations to render graphics. A graphics card
is usually located near a heatsink or fan or has its own individual heatsink/fan
built on.

After taking the binary data from the CPU, the GPU decides
what to with each pixel while the RAM holds the data for the colour and its
location it will be on the screen, and temporarily stores created pictures; the
RAM can be written to and read from simultaneously to support very high
processing speeds and is connected to a digital-to-analogue converter,
shortened to DAC/RAMDAC. For 3D-imaging, a wireframe is created with straight
lines then rasterized (filled with pixels), the processor then creates the
colour, texture, and lighting as it is stored in the memory. It then sends this
data to the screen/monitor with a cable. Components of a graphics card are
measure by their clock speed, including the GPU, memory, and RAMDAC speed, which
are all measure in MHz or GHz (megahertz or gigahertz)– this is the operating
speed of the hardware, the cycles per second.

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The overall performance of a graphics card is determined by
its frame rate, which is the vertices/triangles per second and the pixel fill
rate; these speeds measure how fast it can build a wireframe and how many
pixels are processed per second. When it comes to video games, they require
this process every second and most games are expected to run at 60fps (frames
per second). The majority of the graphics card market is dominated by AMD and
NVidia, for example, the PS4 Pro uses a custom AMD Radeon GPU that runs at 2.13
GHz, with 4.12 Teraflops (floating-point operations per second), and the
graphics card RAM is the GDDR5 with 8GB of memory running at 218 GB/s.


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