The idea is shared from person to person,

The rapid advancements in technology has led us in creation
of many applications in fulfilment of our objectives, specifically, for our own
entertainment. Today, one of the biggest contributor in the entertainment
industry is the gaming industry. The gaming industry exists in many platforms,
a personal computer, a console, or a mobile phone 2. 

            In
many years of advancements in technology, which includes the technology
involved in games, one of the biggest question behind the aspiring game
developer is the definition of a game. Games are activities that provides
amusement to the persons that engages on it. Games, or playing games have
become really vague for many developers and researchers, for it has no formal
meaning; it changes overtime, the same behaviour of what modern games are.
Nowadays, what has driven people to create games is that, anything can be
turned in to a game, and a game can also be turned in to another game. 1

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Before a game becomes popular, it starts as a mere
idea. This idea is shared from person to person, that promotes interaction.
Thru the word of mouth that begins from two persons, to four, to many more and
the idea behind the game spreads like a virus and it becomes a source of
amusement and entertainment to many audiences. 5 Games have psychological
effects to players that increases their engagement, interest, competitiveness,
achievement, teamwork, and learning that gives them the satisfaction of being
gratified. They develop motivation on these games for gratification by people
who plays the same game. Games induce intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and
this drives a player to play the game again and again, along with other players
that keeps a game popular. 6

Gaming, was arguably debated as “work of children”.
This was apparent to the development of “serious games”, which are games that
requires the use of mind. A game called Chaturanga – argued by historians to be
the precursor to chess, developed in 7th century was the first game
in history to explicitly apply a militaristic metaphor to a boardgame. This has
proven to have given a historical application in military contexts.

In the modern day, with the rapid development of
technology, came with the great demand in video games. A video game becomes
popular not only by word of mouth, or the gratification obtained by games
alone. Gaming, in the recent years, have become a multi-billion dollar
industry, owned by some of the biggest companies, particularly in the U.S.,
that made large contributions to the economy. Specifically, In 2009, the U.S.
video game industry added $4.9 billion to the U.S. Gross Domestic Product
GDP, attained $10.5 billion in retail sales, and both directly and indirectly
employed over 120,000 people 8.

Behind great success of a certain industry comes
with great amount of marketing. The modern age of technology have become a
great medium in order to market products, one of such is the game itself. One
of the most effective way of marketing is called viral marketing, that uses
social media as its medium to advertise the product itself. In 2011, games such
as FarmVille and CityVille have managed to get 100 million players in just a
few weeks after it has been launched 7.

            Games,
in general, consists of many elements that plays a big factor for it to be
played by many audiences. Each game provides different experiences, all of
which are aimed for the amusement of the player.  A gamer could be anyone; a male, female, a
parent, a student, a teacher, etc. All of these players have different
personalities and has their own interests and this is a big factor on what game
should be developed 2-3.

            The
na ture of gaming have become a source of
many arguments in the field of psychology. Whether it is good, and will always
be good, or in a way, become a bad influence towards its audiences. Games,
considered as a passive-leisure, promoting a passive lifestyle by spending
hours in front of the platform. Some games can somehow, induce violent
behaviour towards its audiences, although this is limited to a specific genre
of the game. Furthermore, videogames, existing in handheld devices, gave its
audiences an easier access. Easier access means a higher frequency of gameplay,
leading to potential addiction, leading to less productivity in the part of its
audiences. Although contrary to these, with proper discipline, video gaming can
trigger a positive emotional impact (emotional stability, self-esteem,
optimism, vitality, resilience), positive functioning (engagement, positive
relationships, competence and achievement, self-acceptance, personal growth),
and positive social functioning (social coherence, social
integration, social capital). Gaming can also promote
a wide range of cognitive skills in some game genre, particularly in action
games. Specifically, action games induces faster and more accurate attention
allocation, higher spatial resolution in visual processing, and enhanced mental
rotation abilities. 710-11

Games is not only limited for human entertainment.
In a research consisting 160 students, it has been proven that game-based
learning activities have significantly increased the student’s scores. It is
proven that there is a link between the increase in intrinsic motivation and
increase in student’s achievement. Games make students become so engaged and
involved in the activities that they can forget about time; and they can take
so much pleasure in learning the subject that they could learn more than they
otherwise would have. 6

            Games
have also become a way of gathering groups of certain people. In 2012, Sebastian
Seung and a team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a video
game called EyeWire, a citizen-science human based computation game that
challenges the players to map retinal neurons. The game helped them to gather
people who are untrained, to map the human-retinal neurons, which can be used
in future researches. 9

            Nowadays,
game development, specifically, video game development is a great source of
profit, in the purpose of entertaining its audience. But it is not limited
there, because video game development have become a way of artistic expression.
Young programmers have stated that game development have become an enjoyable
aspect in their course. Video game development requires the use of core skills,
logic, storytelling and sound design, in conjunction with technical skill in
programming. Through the process of video game development, young developers
have managed to hone many non-academic skills such as project management,
critical thinking, risk and reward analysis, and goal setting. 1518

The player’s engagement in a game is essential in
the creation of new games. The player’s engagement can define whether it will
be played in a long time.  A research by
Abassi et.al. that consists of two phases with 136 and 270 participants,
measured the player’s engagement factor by using theoretical constructs immersion, flow, presence, involvement, and
absorption, which are related to player’s psychological engagement are
proven to be a factors to study in the development of a popular game. 13

Some of the most popular games, namely Minecraft and Angry Birds are developed entirely by independent game developers.
Independent “Indie” game developers do not have specialists in their teams in
the role of engineer, and they do not use Software Engineering Knowledge when
developing games, and only relying on methods and techniques derived from
Software engineering itself. This has resulted to several difficulties in
development. In a game development team, there is a Programmer, Artist,
Designer, Producer, Tester, Composer, Sound Designer and Editor. In the case of
indie game developers, the producer takes the role of the software engineer,
particularly project management. Without proper systemization during game
development, even the best ideas will fail. In using the proper system, the GDD
(Game Design Document) serves as the blueprint that the team’s Software
Engineer is expected to control. In the research conducted by Carli, B.L.
(2017), 17% of independent developers do not use engineering techniques, and this
is deemed worrying, demonstrating the lack of professionalization in the video
game development industry in Brazil. Although in some indie development teams
that do use Software Engineering in its entirety, uses the agile methodologies,
called Scrum.16

One of the biggest factor in game development is its
platform. The platform defines how the game will be played by the player, which
is a big factor in satisfying their engagement in the long run. The performance
of games depend strongly on the platform’s technical capabilities. One of the
very first video game console, called the Atari
2600 system, was released in 1977, performing at CPU clock speeds of 1.2
MHz at 128 bytes of memory. Consoles have their life-cycle, is eventually
replaced with a new generation console. For example, the Sony PlayStation 4, containing an 8-core processor at 8 GB memory.
In the recent years, major operating system for mobiles such as Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS enable consumers to play
many console-level games such as FIFA 12 from
EA, and many other games specifically
developed for mobile devices such as ZeptoLab’s
Cut the Rope. This is possible with the evolution of the mobile phones
nowadays, allowing players to play great games in hand-held devices, making an
impact on other dedicated, hand-held game consoles such as Nintendo 3DS, which has failed to provoke strong consumer interest.

In the technical aspect of game development, some
tools are used to ease and hasten development times, called Game Engine. Game
Engines has a variety of uses such as allowing them to reuse significant
portions of key software components. Since game engines are reusable across
multiple game projects, they generate high dependence of the game on
implementation resources provided by the chosen engine. 17 Some examples of
popular game engines are Unity and Unreal Engine.  A research conducted by Boaventura F.M.B. and
Sarinho, V.T. called the Minimal Engine for Digital Games which is a collection
of game assets is capable of developing a clone of another game, namely Doodle Jump which allows a new form of
game construction, following the game logic, object model and game state
elements (G-Factor, BinSubaih and Maddock, 2008) approach is developed.

In the modern era of game development, a key feature
is the use of a Game AI. This is true to many genre of games, particularly, the
ones that does not follow a linear storyline. The basic idea of a Game AI is to
make games reactive to players are the key features such as missions, character
behaviors and difficulty scaling. The objectives of the Game AI is to define
the player’s preferences towards specific gameplay features – and guide the
adaptivity modules about how and when they should react, in order to maximize
the player’s enjoyment 4. The game AI is usually designed independently for
each game, according to its genre.  For
example, in a first-person shooter one-on-one match, the player face problems
such as weapon selection fit for the environment of the game, the prediction of
the opponent’s position and being aware of the map, most specifically,
navigating within the map. Each moment, a player needs to evaluate the
situation and switch to the most appropriate weapon, and predict where the
opponent is likely is heading and fine the best route to get there. All of
these problems can be reasoned about on a conceptual level using data such as
the rate of fire of a weapon, the current health of opponent, etc. (Firas
Safradi et al.).  Many games,
particularly in action-adventure/role –playing/real-time strategy games such as
Dragon Age: Origins, and in action-adventure  games, such as Assasin’s Creed: Black Flag, positioning is one of the biggest
factor to consider in order to win one biggest aspect which is combat. In
gaming, which normally involves combat and obstacles, the term ‘positioning’
specifically deals with where the player finds position to move to. In some
games, players needs to avoid certain specific places, such as a wall, an enemy
projectile, or more.  19

Even more advancements in game development is the
intelligent generation of map, or the place the player plays on. Procedural
Content Generation (PCG), refers to the algorithmic creation of content. It
allows the generation of content automatically, drastically reducing the work
of artists. There are a lot of benefits in using the PCG technique in the creation
of game content particularly in increasing the speed of content development.
Apart from this, it will also increase player engagement due to many unique
possibilities of content being generated, thus, increasing the amount of times
the game to be played. PCG is also being used in game development in order to
save time and money in the development process.20

Advancements in technology have came really far, and
has made a lot of innovations in order to create the more and more content we
desire for our satisfaction.

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