The glucose. Cancer cells use anaerobic glycolysis despite

The two main sources from which normal cells require energy for
proliferation and survival are glycolysis producing a net of 2 ATP from each
glucose and the second one being Krebs cycle, which uses pyruvate from
glycolysis and synthesising a net of 36 ATP per glucose molecule (Kim and Dang, 2006). When
oxygen levels are low e.g. with muscles cells during exercise, metabolism shift
to anaerobic glycolysis producing 2 ATP per glucose. Cancer cells use anaerobic
glycolysis despite the presence of normal amounts of environmental oxygen and
are therefore termed “aerobic glycolysis”. It has been shown that cells
dedicate about 10% of the entire proteome and about half the total amount of
metabolic proteins toward the production of enzymes for glycolysis making the
costs enormous as compared to costs of biosynthesis (Madhukar et al., 2015). The first
observation Otto Warburg and colleagues made in the 1920s was that tumor cells
were using up massive amounts of glucose compared to what was seen in the
surrounding tissue. 


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