The formation of the concept of how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) moves its efforts towards a goal is not one of the major issues to consider from the perspective of school districts. This act is aimed at proceeding toward a goal or through an activity which is not of primary importance concerning the current situation. Educational management is an effort to make sure that special needs of children including obtaining the knowledge by means of learning and instruction are met.
Education in the United States is mostly conducted by the public sector while the educational institutions are grouped into different sectors namely: public schools, approved home schools, and the private schools.
Educational institutions have different administrators and school boards that are elected to manage the education at the local level. These educational institutions are largely referred to as compulsory educational institutions, since they adhere to the education requirements and objectives of the United States educational system. Accordingly to the provision and supervision of the educational system by the public sector, it tends to control and fund tertiary institutions with fund received from the federal, state, and local resources. School curricula, employment of teachers, educational funding, and other educational policies are governed by locally elected school boards who have an authority over school districts. School districts are usually run by independent officials and budgets.
However, administrators and teachers should maintain high-quality education by ensuring meaningful curriculum, effective teaching, and necessary supports for each students (Hilliard, 1992, P.10). Educational programs, services, and budgets differ as well as school boards. All of these factors influence the programs school districts offer and the way they deal with children and parents and manage educational curricula.
Depending on the population breakdown in the district, there may be many special education programs or only a few. Some administrators believe very firmly that most, if not all, children with disabilities should be mainstreamed in regular education. On the other hand, there are a number of professionals who believe that special programs are important and that children with disabilities, more often than not, should belong in special classes. Educational sector of the United States should be governed in accordance with the equal rights of citizens to acquire knowledge and be treated correspondingly to their physical or/and mental disability. Inherent in the nature of this is the acknowledgment that the general public does not offer a smooth playing field for all children to start school at the same preliminary procession. As reported by Tower (2007), a vague idea of the widespread approach to education is marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts with the policy objective of fairness where each person is provided with the learning opportunities, services, and support required to comprehend his/her prospective and reputable principles (p.100).
Federal and state statutes for special education have endeavored to bring into balance the privileges of students to acquire knowledge in educational institutions.
Special emphasis is given to those who have outstanding skills. However, some people are deprived of their opportunity to get a diploma in terms of their being unable to perform effectively. This problem is based on claims that these people are characterized by as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness, and a general educational system that has set an integrated course of academic studies, programs, and services. Mainstreaming, integration, and inclusion can be conceived of as emergent, dynamic, complex, and adapting concepts applied to special education problem (Ornstein and Lunenburg 1996, 268). Students are screened and referred for special education by means of determining their eligibility for special education whether the child has a particular category of disability. Schools develop an IEP specifying the student’s present levels of performance and how the child’s disability affects his or her involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Using this information, and following federal and state established procedural requirements, school district personnel attempt to match the students needs within the parameters of established special education programs, services, and resources (Cramer, 1996, P.56).
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