Task The lymphatic system does not have a

Task
2

The
lymphatic system and the cardiovascular system are linked together. Blood
plasma from the cardiovascular system seeps out of the capillaries because the capillary
bed is only one cell thick. This liquid is now called lymph and it is
colourless. The lymph comes from the cardiovascular system and then picked up
by the lymph vessel which transports it to the lymphatic system.

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The
lymphatic system does not have a pump, like the heart does, to transport the
lymph throughout the system. The lymph is moves with the help of skeletal
muscle. When these muscles are contracted; the lymph takes advantage of this
and moves with it. The smooth muscles add to the force. The reason why our
limbs start to swell is because when we do not contract or limbs (for example
on the plane or long journeys), the lymph would all gather there causing
swelling.

Once
the lymph is taken around the lymphatic system, it then goes back into the
blood (cardiovascular system) into the subclavian vein. The left subclavien
vein drains about 25% of lymph and the right subclavian vein drains the rest of
the 75% of lymph.

Lymph
is clear and colourless because it contains white blood cells. The lymphatic system protects the body
from infection because the lymphatic system produces leukocytes (white blood cells). The white
blood cells remove unwanted substances from the lymph
as it travels towards the lymph nodes and lymphatic tissues. It also recognises
antigens and makes antibodies to destroy any cell that can potentially harm us.
Also lymph nodes filter the lymph which filters out anything harmful to us. Unwanted substances in the body are taken up by the lymphatic
system as fluid and substances are exchanged between tissues and the blood stream.
Then lymphocytes are added here to help fight pathogens and anything that may have
a negative effect on us, before
the lymph travels back into the bloodstream. (Argosy
Publishing, 2017)

The
lymphatic system helps to maintain fluid balance by removing the fluid (blood plasma) that has left the cardiovascular system
that was leaking from the capillaries. This fluid is now
called lymph when it enters the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system removes the
liquid and travels through the lymphatic vessels into the blood stream. If
the lymphatic system did not exist then the lymph would build up causing major
swelling. It also helps the lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by collecting the excess fluid and from the
tissues and put it back into the bloodstream.

Task
3

a)       Elephantiasis
is an example of a lymphatic system disorder and cause extreme swelling. This
disorder is caused by a mosquito bite. During the mosquito bite, a filarial
worm was transmitted and grew into an adult worm and went into the lymphatic
system and an infection is occurred. The worm blocks the lymphatic system
causing all the lymph to stay in one place and not travel back to the
cardiovascular system where it is supposed to be. The blockage causes the lymph
to not flow normally which is what cause the extreme swelling because there is
too much lymph present.
Also the skin thickens and discoloration is apparent. However, the swelling of
elephantiasis usually does not occur until a person has been bitten by the infected
mosquitoes many times and has been exposed to infected mosquitoes for a long
period of time. (Humanillnesses.com, 2017). The
main medication used to treat this condition is diethylcarbamazine or DEC,
which kills the microfilariae as well as some adult worms. Some side effects
include dizziness, fever and aching muscles. (Dr Ananya
Mandal, 2017).

This is different to a healthy lymphatic
system because the lymphatic system is supposed to prevent swelling. A healthy lymphatic
system ensures that the lymph fluid flows in a stream without anything getting blocked.
Once there is a blockage in the lymphatic system then disorders start occurring.
Swelling occurs when fluid balance is not maintained in the lymphatic system so
if the lymphatic system gets blocked then the lymphatic vessels cannot return the
lymph back into the bloodstream.

b)     
 i)
The patient has an abnormal amount (higher amount) of white blood cell count or
leukocytes and lymphocytes.

ii) This
patient has developed lymphoma which means that the lymphocytes have grown out
of control. Lymphoma is a type of cancer and there are many types such as
Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and they all have different
treatments. Lymphoma begins when changes in the genes of
lymphocytes happen. This changes how the cell grows and divides and may stop
it dying when it should. Most of the time lymphoma occurs when there is more
than one change that happens in the genes. (Lymphoma
Association, 2017)

References

·        
Humanillnesses.com.
(2017). Elephantiasis – body, causes, The Mosquito Carrier, Lymphedema,
Lymphatic filiariasis. online Available at: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/E-Ga/Elephantiasis.html
Accessed 28 Oct. 2017.

·        
Dr Ananya Mandal, M.
(2017). What is Elephantiasis?. online News-Medical.net. Available at:
https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Elephantiasis.aspx Accessed 28
Oct. 2017.

·        
http://diseasespictures.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Elephantiasis.jpg

·        
Argosy Publishing, I. (2017). Lymphatic System. online
Visiblebody.com. Available at: https://www.visiblebody.com/learn/lymphatic/lymphatic-system
Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.

·        
Lymphoma Association. (2017). Causes of lymphoma in detail. online
Available at:
https://www.lymphomas.org.uk/about-lymphoma/what-is-lymphoma/causes/causes-lymphoma-detail#whatknownaboutcauses
Accessed 13 Dec. 2017.