Task2Thelymphatic system and the cardiovascular system are linked together. Bloodplasma from the cardiovascular system seeps out of the capillaries because the capillarybed is only one cell thick. This liquid is now called lymph and it iscolourless. The lymph comes from the cardiovascular system and then picked upby the lymph vessel which transports it to the lymphatic system.Thelymphatic system does not have a pump, like the heart does, to transport thelymph throughout the system. The lymph is moves with the help of skeletalmuscle.
When these muscles are contracted; the lymph takes advantage of thisand moves with it. The smooth muscles add to the force. The reason why ourlimbs start to swell is because when we do not contract or limbs (for exampleon the plane or long journeys), the lymph would all gather there causingswelling. Oncethe lymph is taken around the lymphatic system, it then goes back into theblood (cardiovascular system) into the subclavian vein. The left subclavienvein drains about 25% of lymph and the right subclavian vein drains the rest ofthe 75% of lymph.
Lymphis clear and colourless because it contains white blood cells. The lymphatic system protects the bodyfrom infection because the lymphatic system produces leukocytes (white blood cells). The whiteblood cells remove unwanted substances from the lymphas it travels towards the lymph nodes and lymphatic tissues. It also recognisesantigens and makes antibodies to destroy any cell that can potentially harm us.Also lymph nodes filter the lymph which filters out anything harmful to us. Unwanted substances in the body are taken up by the lymphaticsystem as fluid and substances are exchanged between tissues and the blood stream.
Then lymphocytes are added here to help fight pathogens and anything that may havea negative effect on us, beforethe lymph travels back into the bloodstream. (ArgosyPublishing, 2017)Thelymphatic system helps to maintain fluid balance by removing the fluid (blood plasma) that has left the cardiovascular systemthat was leaking from the capillaries. This fluid is nowcalled lymph when it enters the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system removes theliquid and travels through the lymphatic vessels into the blood stream. Ifthe lymphatic system did not exist then the lymph would build up causing majorswelling. It also helps the lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by collecting the excess fluid and from thetissues and put it back into the bloodstream.
Task3a) Elephantiasisis an example of a lymphatic system disorder and cause extreme swelling. Thisdisorder is caused by a mosquito bite. During the mosquito bite, a filarialworm was transmitted and grew into an adult worm and went into the lymphaticsystem and an infection is occurred. The worm blocks the lymphatic systemcausing all the lymph to stay in one place and not travel back to thecardiovascular system where it is supposed to be. The blockage causes the lymphto not flow normally which is what cause the extreme swelling because there istoo much lymph present.Also the skin thickens and discoloration is apparent. However, the swelling ofelephantiasis usually does not occur until a person has been bitten by the infectedmosquitoes many times and has been exposed to infected mosquitoes for a longperiod of time.
(Humanillnesses.com, 2017). Themain medication used to treat this condition is diethylcarbamazine or DEC,which kills the microfilariae as well as some adult worms. Some side effectsinclude dizziness, fever and aching muscles. (Dr AnanyaMandal, 2017).This is different to a healthy lymphaticsystem because the lymphatic system is supposed to prevent swelling. A healthy lymphaticsystem ensures that the lymph fluid flows in a stream without anything getting blocked.Once there is a blockage in the lymphatic system then disorders start occurring.
Swelling occurs when fluid balance is not maintained in the lymphatic system soif the lymphatic system gets blocked then the lymphatic vessels cannot return thelymph back into the bloodstream.b) i)The patient has an abnormal amount (higher amount) of white blood cell count orleukocytes and lymphocytes.ii) Thispatient has developed lymphoma which means that the lymphocytes have grown outof control. Lymphoma is a type of cancer and there are many types such asHodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and they all have differenttreatments. Lymphoma begins when changes in the genes oflymphocytes happen.
This changes how the cell grows and divides and may stopit dying when it should. Most of the time lymphoma occurs when there is morethan one change that happens in the genes. (LymphomaAssociation, 2017)References· Humanillnesses.com.(2017). Elephantiasis – body, causes, The Mosquito Carrier, Lymphedema,Lymphatic filiariasis.
online Available at: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/E-Ga/Elephantiasis.htmlAccessed 28 Oct. 2017.· Dr Ananya Mandal, M.(2017). What is Elephantiasis?.
online News-Medical.net. Available at:https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Elephantiasis.aspx Accessed 28Oct. 2017.· http://diseasespictures.
com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Elephantiasis.jpg· Argosy Publishing, I. (2017). Lymphatic System. onlineVisiblebody.com. Available at: https://www.
visiblebody.com/learn/lymphatic/lymphatic-systemAccessed 13 Dec. 2017.· Lymphoma Association.
(2017). Causes of lymphoma in detail. onlineAvailable at:https://www.lymphomas.org.
uk/about-lymphoma/what-is-lymphoma/causes/causes-lymphoma-detail#whatknownaboutcausesAccessed 13 Dec. 2017.