Suicide evaluation at the University of Washington

Suicide is an action to end your own life by yourself, every suicide is a tragedy, indeed, it is an extremely complex issue that causes pain to hundreds of thousands of people every year around the world.

According to the estimates from the World Health Organisation (WHO), which is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health, over 800,000 people die due to suicide every year, which is one person every 40 seconds. This corresponds to an age-standardized suicide rate of around 11.5 per 100,000 people. According to the estimates in 2016 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), which is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle, there is a total of around 817,000 suicide deaths. This represents a small reduction from the late 1990s where annual deaths were around 850,000-860,000. The largest share of suicides is within the 15-49 years old, approximately 60 percent of deaths.Global Health Observatory (GHO), which is WHO’s gateway to health-related statistics for more than 1000 indicators for its 194 Member States GHO has stated that in Malaysia 2015, Crude suicide rates (per 100 000 population), for both sexes are 5.8 rates, males are 8.

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6 rates and females are 2.9 rates. Crude suicide rates are the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year with per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Besides, age-standardized suicide rates (per 100 000 population) from GHO for both sexes are 6.5 rates, males are 9.5 rates and females are 3.4 rates.

Age adjustment of age-standardized suicide rates can make the different groups more comparable. A “standard” population distribution is used to adjust death and hospitalization rates. The age-adjusted rates are rates that would have existed if the population under study had the same age distribution as the “standard” population. It is not legitimate to compare adjusted rates which use different standard populations.What causes suicide? The reasons that I conjecture and also the data have shown are mental health, economic recessions and alcohol use. The first reason that causes suicide is mental health.

Depression and others mood disorders are widely recognized among the most important risk factors for suicide.According to the report of Bertolote and Fleischmann (2002), which provides a systematic review of studies reporting diagnoses of mental disorders for individuals dying from suicide, and discuss the implications of psychiatric diagnosis for suicide prevention 98% of those who died by suicide had a diagnosable mental disorder. Two points are worth emphasizing from the report: (i) mood disorders – mainly depression – account for the largest share of diagnosed disorders in suicide cases, notably for those individuals who were diagnosed without being admitted to a mental hospital; and (ii) suicide is found associated with a variety of mental disorders.Various studies have analyzed the correlation between economic recessions and suicide rates. Changetal.

(2009) used WHO and Taiwanese mortality statistics to explore whether there was a correlation between the Asian economic crisis of 1997-1998 and suicide rates. According to the result, male rates in 1998 rose notably in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea, while rises in female rates were less marked in the same countries. Most of the studies exploring the effect of the economy on suicide tend to focus on patterns for specific events in particular countries or regions.

However, more comprehensive studies using cross-country data over several different world regions and over longer time windows find similar results. Nordtetal. (2015) retrospectively analyzed public data for suicide, population, and economy over the period 2000-2011 across 63 countries in four world regions. Their results correspond with previous research indicating that a rise in unemployment is linked to an increase in suicides; however, they find that the relationship is non-linear – the correlation between unemployment and suicide is stronger in countries with a lower rather than with a higher pre-crisis unemployment rate.

Alcohol abuse is strongly linked to death by suicide. In the US, in 2007 alcohol was involved in approximately a third of reported suicides.26 Indeed, several academic studies have found a positive and significant association between per capita alcohol consumption and male suicide rates in a number of countries.)But what are the mental illnesses that lead to suicide? First mental illness is depression. The number of psychological disorders that can lead to suicide is depression. A large number of facts have proved that although depressed people have not all suicidal thoughts and behaviors, suicide is a more depressed mood.

Second mental illness is schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia are forced to go on the wrong path because of their mental disorders, hallucinations and delusions. These are people who are motivated by suicide, either by god or by a deceased relative, or by feeling persecuted and desperate to kill themselves.

The third is insomnia. Chronic sleep deprivation can lead to cognitive dysfunction and reduced happiness, leading to suicidal impulses.Fourth is anxiety disorders.

With the increasing number of suicides among anxiety disorders in recent years, it has become an important factor in the mental illness that causes suicide.Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also one of the mental illness that leads to suicide. Analysis of the causes of the suicide of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, on the one hand, because of the mental distress, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients may choose suicide relief because of depression. On the other hand, some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are more extreme, and they want to end forced thought and compulsion by destroying themselves.Besides, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.Mental illness is the leading cause of suicide, and mental illness accounts for 30 to 40 percent of all suicides. The total suicide rate of various mental disorders is 6 to 12 times higher than that of the general population.

Depression kills up to a quarter of all mental illnesses, and schizophrenia kills 27 to 30 percent of all mental illnesses, and suicide is a major cause of death in mental patients. Among them, depression suicide is a part of the suicide of mental illness.The negative effects of suicide on families and suicide attempts have brought great pain to their families, relatives and friends. If a husband or wife chooses to commit suicide, their spouse will often feel guilty, self-blame, and regretful, and these painful emotions will be with them for the rest of their lives. If parents choose to commit suicide, their children may feel that it is their own cause that causes their parents to commit suicide. They can’t be relieved of it, and they may even choose to commit suicide. Apart from guilt, the relatives and friends of those who commit suicide are subjected to a lot of social pressure.

The study found that a person’s suicide should at least have a serious, long-term impact on the mood and life of several people around him.Yet suicides are preventable with timely, evidence-based interventions.In psychological behavior in our daily life, improve the ability to cope with and adapt to adverse life events, and improve the response and problem-solving skills, improve the personal sense of self-worth and confidence, he can take the initiative to seek help. And have optimistic mentality sunshine, can build and friends, colleagues and neighbours a good interpersonal relationship, good at psychological relief, in addition, should also have a healthy lifestyle, good eating sleep habits, such as regular exercise. But even with the corresponding mental illness also not to worry too much about, in general, mental illness patients received regular treatment, can alleviate the symptoms, and can be recovered, rather than any patients with mental illness can choose to commit suicide to end their own life, so when suffering from mental illness, should be timely to specialized subject hospital checking diagnose, take regular treatment system, and now will most take therapy in the treatment of mental illness and double combined with drug treatment to achieve better effect.Moreover, the media coverage of suicide is also a problem nowadays.

A number of empirical studies have found that there is an increase in suicides following media reports of suicide – a relationship referred to as ‘copycat’ behaviour. Gould et al. (2003) provide a number of references from the literature on suicide clusters supporting the contention that suicide is “contagious”. Indeed, based on such findings, the WHO has developed guidelines for the reporting of suicides in the media.In a review of the literature studying the link between media coverage and suicides, Stack (2003) analyzes a total of 293 findings from 42 academic studies, concluding that specific media content makes a substantial difference: studies measuring the effect of either an entertainment or political celebrity suicide story were 14.3 times more likely to find a copycat effect than studies that did not, and studies based on a real as opposed to fictional story were 4.

03 times more likely to uncover a copycat effect.More recent studies corroborate this result. Using data from Austria, Niederkrotenthaler (2010) find that repetitive reporting of the same suicide and the reporting of suicide myths were positively associated with higher suicide rates; while coverage of positive coping in adverse circumstances – as covered in media items about suicidal ideation (i.e. suicidal thoughts, rather than suicidal behavior) – was negatively associated with suicide rates.

The World Psychiatric Association, WPA has spread a questionnaire. According to the result of the questionnaire, there is more than 80 percent of respondents believed they were depressed. Meanwhile, there is more than 45 percent of netizens said they “don’t see a doctor” when they are depressed. Besides, more than 36 percent chose to go to “comprehensive hospitals, which are diagnosed by general practitioners,” and fewer than 18 percent chose to go to a specialist psychiatric hospital.

People with anxiety, fear, loneliness, loss, despair and others will end their life by themselves easily. When melancholy “tired”, bored, aimless, and hopeless to become a universal mindset, a person who commits suicide in a world of misanthropy causes others to empathize with “we are all depressed”. In our focus on suicidal melancholic motives, don’t forget about suicide and the causes of depression.In a nutshell, we can avoid suicide by spreading our loves and kindness to the people. We have to lend a helping hand to the people who need our help. We have to learn to listen and spread love and hope to the people who cannot come out from the dark.


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