Students and what level of skill they have

Students in the middle school on Junior High School
usually have the opportunity to study Home Economics or Industrial Arts. In
some schools, industrial Arts is called Technology Education. These courses
emphasize the learning and use of practical skills.

The Home Economics course focuses on the skills of
the day-to-day living. Topics studied usually include family life and home
management; food and nutrition; clothing; home furnishing; and how to be smart
consumers.

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During the course, students are required to complete
a number of hands-on projects which may include planning a menu and preparing a
meal, planning a room and making a three-dimensional model, or sewing a simple
garment. Role playing and dramatization are used to classify the complexities
of home and community relationships and family living. This is seriously taken by the
DepEd Memorandum Order No.191 series of 2003 which stated that the “development
of skill-based competencies anchored in TLE” must be ensured to provide a venue
for the development of skills-based competencies.

In the industrial arts or technology education
course, students are introduced to hand and power tools and their application
to the basic elements of mechanical drawing or drafting. They also learn about
common industrial materials such as metal, plastics and ceramics and about
tools and processes used in electricity, electronics, printing and graphics
arts, photography and other general crafts. Students are required to complete
several projects that demonstrate what they have learned about materials and
processes and what level of skill they have reached with basic tools,
techniques and procedures. Amores (2012) stated that this program aims to give
students the following: First, acquire working knowledge of the materials,
tools, equipment, processes and product production, distribution and
utilization and conservation of human and material resources; Second, choose
various business opportunities and choose the right entrepreneurial business
suited to the student; Third, be intelligent in choosing a practical career
through the variety of entrepreneurial and practicum offered in the program.