” This would suggest that females would be more collectivist than males. A gender main effect will be observed for (d. ) Masculinity and (c. ) Individualism where males score higher than females. No other main effect was hypothesized. Interactions An age interaction with country will be seen with all five dimensions (a. – e. ) where the differences across age groups on a dimension will be more pronounced in China than in Canada. Hofstede found greater differences in masculinity between males and females in more masculine countries, thus:
An interaction between country and gender will be observed where the difference in masculinity scores (d.) between males and females will be greater in the more masculine country. Method A self-administered paper questionnaire was completed by respondents in an eastern Canadian city and a city in central China. Hofstedes approach surveyed IBM employees and tended to focus on workplace values with references in its measures to workplace activities and behaviors . Efforts have been made to simplify the scale and make it more applicable to life outside of the workplace. One such effort is the CVScale by Yoo and Donthu (1998) and Yoo, Donthu and Lenartowicz (2004).
It covers Hofstede’s five factors and concisely uses 26 items, taking a more general focus than just that of the workplace. It has also been tested for reliability in the US and Asian environments and was used in this questionnaire. The questionnaire was translated and independently back-translated to check for consistency of meaning. Some small corrections were made with the help of the translator. A quota approach to sampling was used with the aim of equal numbers of males and females, and of young and old respondents. The young group consisted of university students in arts and science classes in universities in both countries.
Undergraduate university students usually consist of the youngest adults available for study. For the older respondents, approximately half were from the university communities in both countries and included administrative and staff employees (not professors). The balance in China were completed in various work locations, while in Canada, a mall intercept approach was employed. Results Total sample size was 554. Six incomplete questionnaires were discarded. A split at 23 years of age effectively separated regular-stream students from non-students and mature students. A tabulation of the sub-groups is shown in Table 1.
Scale factor items were averaged and analysis of variance was conducted with country, gender and age group as factors and the five cultural dimensions as dependent variables. The results of this ANOVA are shown in Table 2. Table 1 TABULATION OF RESPONDENTS Young Old Total Male China Canada Total 64 33 97 74 69 143 138 102 240 Female China Canada Total 105 86 191 57 58 115 162 144 306 Table 2 SUMMARY OF ANOVA RESULTS Cell Contents – p value – direct’n of effect – expectation Country Gender Age Country x Gender Country x Age Age x Gender 3-way a. Power-Distance .000.
Ch>Ca x .001 m>f .039o>y x ns .005 Fig. 1 ns ns b. Uncert. Avoid ns ns .019 o>y ns ns ns ns c. Collectivism .003 Ch>Ca x .040 m>f .001 o>y ns ns ns ns d. Masculinity .000 Ch>Ca o .000 m>f x .020 o>y o ns ns .098 .058 e. Long Term Orientation (LTO) .003 Ch>Ca x ns ns ns ns ns ns ns = not significant x = result found in expected direction of hypothesis o = result found opposite of expected direction of hypothesis = result expected but not found = no result expected The nature of the country by age interaction is shown in the plot of the means (Figure 1). Summary Effects of globalization.
Hofstede notes changes in measured levels of his dimension between 1968 and 1972. It seems very likely that changes between 1972 and now would be much more profound with globalization of business and telecommunication and the shift of China to more free-market economy. While there has been some debate on whether there is convergence of world culture, Inglehart and Baker (2000) conclude that while cultural differences will persist there is a trend to more common cultural values as countries industrialize. Perhaps China’s values are beginning to change and that change is seen especially in its cohort of young people.
The focus of the current study was on people in general rather than people in the workplace as was Hofstede’s approach. Individuals’ attitudes, perceptions and priorities may be different between the two environments. A study of the separation between one’s work and private values might be interesting. There is also a need to examine more closely the nature of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. A closer look at the difference between old and young responses might be worthwhile – at what age does the change take place? Are there really sub factors in dimensions such as masculinity or others?
As well, examining how these factors vary across other subgroups within countries, beyond male and female and old and young may be worthwhile.
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