Prehistorical Music Spanish music begins singing and knocking or percuting different objects. Adding pieces of skins to vessels, whistling on pipes or rubbing strings offer interesting effects. Painting on walls in caves prove it, specially in Mediterranean area. Roman Hispanic literature presents allusions to instruments, andalouisan dancer girls or habitudes, but we cannot always imagine the way in wich performing was made. pic] Painting on Walls: dancers? [pic] Beatus from Silos Hispanic Music Until 11th century our Peninsula cultivated a music written by pneumata. In spite of its visigothic origin, it has been called mozarabic singing. It was performed during lithurgic ceremonies and it is yet difficult to be read in our days. It was probably influenced by jew, christian and even north-african music. | | [pic] | |Musical manuscript from | |Santo Domingo de Silos | | We can notice it at the recitation of hispanic Pater Noster from codex as Leon’s Antiphonarium one nd books in Santo Domingo de Silos or | |San Millan de la Cogolla. At the end of 15th century Cardinal Cisneros asked Alonso Ortiz to compile many books with this music for Mozarabic| |Toledo’s Chapel. |[pic] | |Mozarabic Antiphonarium (Leon) | | | | | | | | It would be forgotten after roman rite, established about 1080, though it remained in a special way in Castilian mozarabian communities | |and churchs. | | | We do not know very much on lay music for weddings or funerals. | | | | A special mention is due to hebrew and andalousian compositions, coming from an oral tradition. Living testimonies can help us today to | |recreate this variety. |[pic] | |Arabian lutes | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Book of Songs | | Gregorian Singing | | | | Also known as carolingian-roman: it was cultivated since 12th century in Catalonia, since Castille was jealous of its old ways. Gregorian | |singing -produced by Gregorius I’s (540-604) reformations between 6th and 13th centuries- was performed by a single voice during the Mass. | |One of its variations is called tropos, short text sung between longer pieces. | | | | Works in this style are included in Calixtinus Codex, Red Book from Montserrat and the Burgos, Huelgas’ Monastery one. The trouble is | |whether they come from a peninsular source or not. | | |Polyphony | | | | Gregorian singing would be forgotten after polyphonic music -from ars antiqua (12th and 13th centuries)- derived from Notre Dame | |School. Polyphony would be surpassed by Ars Nova (1230): this name is taken from a work by Philip of Vitry. | | | | Polyphony superimposes different melodies separated by intervals of fourths, fifths or eighths. It implies an improvement in music | |writing. Works cited in prior section also include works from spanish ars antiqua and nova, as well as Toledo’s manuscript, from Notre | |Dame School. |[pic] | |Polyphonic Manuscript | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Record with | |works by Peire Vidal | | Romance Monody | | | | Romance songs would have existed from the beginning, but we only keep written samples from trovadours music. | | | | Trouvadours were poets, composers or performers in language of oc, from Catalonia and the south of French. Trouvers would have used the| |language of oil. Trouvadours may reflect arabian influences in their art. | | | | We can find a list of authors from Guillaume d’Aquitanie (1071-1126) to travellers in castilian court: Peire d’Alvernha (1149-1168), | |Peire Vidal (1183-1204), Guiraud Riquier (1254-1292)… Berenguer de Palou (ca. 1164), Guillem de Bergueda (1138-1192) and Guillem de | |Cabestany (ca. 212) came from Catalonia. | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Cantigas | | | | Occitanian influence can be seen in galaico-portuguese cantigas of love. We keep the music of seven cantigas of friend by Martin Codax | |(13th century). | | | Cantigas to Saint Mary by Alphonse 10th the Wise (1252-1284) compose the biggest corpus. They are close to arabian zejel and could be | |written by some relative to Fray Gil de Zamora. They would be sung with the help of musical instruments. | | | | Some scholars think that epic poems or religious dramatic texts could have been accompanied by music, as Song of Sibyl. Works as Book of | |Good Love (1343) deal with organography -discipline for musical instruments-. |[pic] | |Cantigas | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Musical Songbook from Palace | | Evolution of polyphony | | | | From the end of 14th century vocal polyphonic music was performed by chapels, groups of singers conducted by a master who played for | |Cathedrals. High voices were suitable for children -often sixes- and low ones for adults -tiple, contralto, tenor and bass-. Soon, an organ | |player would be added por daily sessions -another one for solemnities- and minstrels with wind instruments -flutes, chirimies, sacabuches, | |bassons, bugles- that strengthened main voices. |[pic] | |Page from | |Songbook of Segovia | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Songbook of Colombine | | We cannot find relics of clear peninsular polyphonic music until the last third of 15th century. | | | | There were important royal chapels that knew german or flamish fashions at the beginning of 16th century. Many kings and nobles created | |their own chapels. | | | | Religious music is always adapted to the liturgy: motetes, masses, offices and villancicos. Profane one offers villancicos, songs, ballads| |and madrigals.
Instrumental one is represented by verses -usually for keyboards-, fantasies for vihuela, glosses, differencies, tientos… | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Songbook of Uppsala (1556) | | A collection of profane music is collected in Songbook of Colombine, in Musical Songbook of Palace and in Songbook of Segovia. Its authors| |are the vasque Juan de Anchieta (15th century-1523), Francisco de Penalosa (ca. 1470-1528), Pedro de Escobar and Juan del Encina (1468-1530). | | | This kind of music is also represented by the printed Songbook (1556), found in Uppsala Library. | | | |16th Century | | | | In Carlos 1st age there were composers as Mateo Flecha “the Old” (1481-ca. 1549), author of The Salads (Prague, 1581), a gener that | |combinates verses in different languages. | | | Cristobal de Morales (Sevilla, ca. 1500-1553) studied in Rome, where he published several Masses in 1544. Other composers were Pedro de | |Pastrana, Juan Vazquez or Diego Ortiz. | | | | In Philip 2nd age lived Gabriel Galvez, Andres Torrente, Juan Navarro and Rodrigo de Cevallos. | | | | Francisco Guerrero (ca. 1527-1599), who travelled to Italy and published his work between 1555 and 1589, worked in Seville. |[pic] | |Cipher | |for organ | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Officium Defunctorum | | The most important artist in this century, Tomas Luis de Victoria (Avila, 1548-1611), learnt in his native town’s Cathedral. He worked | |in Rome and published about 170 works -65 motetes, 34 masses 37 officcia for Holy Week, Magnificat and Psalms- from 1572. After 1587 he | |worked for the Empress, whose death was the occasion for a famous Officium Defunctorum (1605) for six voices. | | | His polychoralism -compositions for several choirs- and sense of harmony -for writing flats and sustained notes- made him a forerunner | |of Baroque. He was protected by Philip 3rd. | |[pic] | |Manuscript letter by Tomas Luis de Victoria | | | | | | | [pic] | |The Master | | Instrumental music | | | | After 1536 instrumental music is often printed. | | | | The first masterwork could be The Master (1536) by Luis de Milan (Valencia, ca. 1500-1561), devoted to Joan 3rd in Portugal. It includes | |phantasies, pavanas, tientos, villancicos, ballads and original works in wich vihuela admits human voice. |[pic] | |The Dolphin (1536) | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Three Books of Music | | It would be followed by The Dolphin (1538), by Luis de Narvaez, and Three Books of Music in Cipher for Vihuela (Seville, 1546) by Alonso | |de Mudarra. Other vihuela players were Enriquez de Valderrabano author of the anthology Jungle of Sirens (1547), Diego Pisador -Book of Music| |for Vihuela (1552)- and Miguel de Fuenllana -Orphenica Lyra-. | | | | | | |[pic] | |Book of New Cipher | | Their equivalent for organ would be the Book of New Cipher for Keys, Harp and Vihuela (Alcala de Henares, 1557) by Luis Venegas de | |Henestrosa and the Works of Music for Key, Harp and Vihuela (1578) by Antonio de Cabezon (Burgos, 1510-1566), edited by his own son. Both | |works show the ability of music for being adapted to different instruments or even to human voices. | | |[pic] | |Works of Music for Key, Harp and Vihuela | | | | | | | | Theory and treatises | | | | There are several treatises on plain singing, as Domingo Marcos Duran or Francisco Tovar ones. | | | | Bartolome Ramos de Pareja (? 1440-1521? ) was andalousian. His De Musica tractatus sive Musica practica (1482) deals with the division of | |the octave. | | | | Fray Juan Bermudo published a Declaration of musical instruments (1555) and Fray Tomas de Santa Maria an Art of Playing Phantasy (1565). |[pic] | |Cipher for Harp or Organ | | | | | | | |[pic] | |De Musica libri septem | | Francisco Salinas (Burgos, 1513-1590), organ player and chairman in Salamanca, shows in his De Musica libri septem (1577) the relationship| |between verse and melody. | | | | 17th Century | | | | Music evolutions towards polychoralism: compositions for several choirs -exceptionally up to sixteen voices-. An outstanding soloist | |voice singing melodies would break Renaissance sense of unity. A continuous bass becomes something different from a new voice, though it | |respected traditional polyphony. Music for organ will improve because of new crafting techniques.
One of the most important musicians of | |this age is Francisco Correa de Arauxo | |[pic] | |Tientos and discursos | |by Correa de Arauxo | | | | | | | | Although many compositions from this century are lost today, we think that music achieved now a clearly spanish personality. | | | | In the religious stream Sebastian de Vivanco (? -1622) stood out becuase of his motetes. We also keep works by Lopez de Velasco | |(1584-1659), Juan del Vado fl. 1634) or Juan Garcia de Salazar (? -1710). The most typical gener in this time can be the Villancico, the | |Miserere and the Lamentations for Holly Week. | | | | The tiento was probably taken from vihuela music. It was originally a combination of chords and fast melodies. Then, the word meant | |essay or study. | | | | Also profane music offered the solo with musical support. A different gener, the scenic music, has to do with popular spanish theater. | |Short musical pieces were performed between theater acts.
Closer to Court than to people there were operas and zarzuelas | |[pic] | |New Way of Cipher for Playing the Guitar… | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Instruction of Music on the Spanish Guitar… | | A work of 1596 is now published: the Guitar of Five Orders by Juan Carlos Amat (1572-1642), that teachs the technique of scratched | |arpegia.
It would be followed by Nicolas Doizi de Velasco’s New Way of Cipher for Playing the Guitar… (1640). This instrument -still with | |five strings- will displace both lute and vihuela, when Instruction of Music on the Spanish Guitar… (1674) was published by Gaspar Sanz | |(Teruel, 1640-1710). It would be continued by Ruiz de Ribaraz (1677) and Francisco Guerau (1684). | |[pic] | |Illustration from Gaspar Sanz’s work | | | | | | |[pic] | |Blas Nasarre, | |Musical School | | Theory and Treatises | | | | Between works on musical theory we should cite The Melopeo and Master (1613) by the italian writer Pedro Cerone (1566-1625) from Bergamo. | |He was an authority who met important artists in Madrid and suffered criticisms by Friar Eximeno. | | | | Organist Andres Lorente (1624-1703) published in The Reason of Music… (1672) his papers on musical dissonances. A collection of | |compositions was presented by Diego Fernandez de Huete in his Numerous Compendium (1702). Pablo Nasarre (ca. 1650-1730) wrote on philosophy of| |music and was also critized by Friar Eximeno. | | | 18th Century | | | | Presence of Borbon dinasty in Spain modified our music. It introduced homophony with disonances learnt from italian music, instead of | |old contrapunctus. Musicians of this age discuss the role of note B in octave and other questions. | | | | Feijoo sustained polemics between old and modern musicians. Indeed, a musical printing was created. Antonio Eximeno or Esteban de | |Arteaga, expelled Jesuits, will write a history of spanish music. |[pic] | |Origin of Music | | | | | | | | Novelties caused a hold up in religious music. This one was kept by Sebastian Duron (1660-1716), who discussed on dissonances and rules| |of composition. He enjoyed italian techniques and wrote music for theater. | | | | Jose de Torres Martinez Bravo, Antonio Literes (1673-1747) and Jose de Nebra (1702-1768) and sons followed him in Royal Chapel.
A | |clever musician was Antonio Rodriguez de Hita (1724-1787). This historian dealt with theories and wrote zarzuelas with libretti by Ramon | |de la Cruz. In Catalonia there were composers as Pedro Rabassa (1694-1760) and Jose Pons. | |[pic] | |Instructive Diapason | | | | | | | [pic] | |Pablo Minguet Yrol | |Rules and Advices (Madrid, 1752) | | Chamber music for kings and nobles illustrates profane music. It is performed with violin, viola, violoncello and double bass -often | |keys-. Santiago de Murcia, master of the Queen, stood out among virtuous guitarists. Frair Basilio -Miguel Garcia- surprised Boccherini | |because of his technique, as well as Fernando Fernandiere. | | | | | | | Foreign musicians lived in Spain, as napolitan Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), master of keyboard and writter of sonatas. His disciples | |were Sebastian de Albero (1722-1756) and Friar Antonio Soler (Olot, 1729-1783), who lived in El Escorial and wrote Sonatas and Quintets for | |keys and strings, following the cello player in Royal Chapel: Luigi Boccherini (1743-1805). | | | | An important violin player was Jose de Herrando (1680-1762), friend of Torres Villarroel and author of a theoric treatise. |[pic] | |Manuscript of Stabat Mater by Antonio Soler | | | | | | | |[pic] | |The Music | | Many nobles were protected musicians: Tomas de Iriarte in his poem The Music (1780) remembers them. Other institutions helped music and | |dance; theaters, as Canos del Peral one, were adapted for spiritual concerts from 1787. Presence in 1737 of Farinelli (1705-1782) -Carlos | |Broschi- changed musical perspective until his depart in 1759.
His operas, with Metastasio’s libretti, marked a triumph of italian fashion in| |art. Different ways in scenic theater would be the scenic tonadilla, opereta in one scene, or the melologo, declamation with musical | |sketches. | | | |19th Century | | | | This century begins with unfortunate Juan Crisostomo Arriaga (Bilbao, 1806-1826). This precocious musician learnt in Paris. In 1819 he | |wrote The Happy Slaves, opera with a libretto by L. Comella, from wich we just keep the Oberture.
In 1824 his quartets for strings and his| |Simphony in D minor appeared in Paris. | | | | Conservatoire in Madrid, was founded in 1830 -Barcelone’s Liceum in 1837, followed by Bilbao’s and Valencia’s-. In 1835 Madrid Ateneo | |was created. Other institutions were announced by specialized magazines. | | | | Jesus de Monasterio created in 1863 the Society for Quartets, that performed works by Marques, Chapi and Breton. He created in 1866 | |with Asenjo Barbieri and Gaztambide the Society for Concerts: he offered, for the first time in Spain, Symphonies by Beethoven. | | | | | | | Jesus de Monasterio (Santander 1836-1903) stands out as a classicist in violin. He took part on alhambrism in his time and helped new | |generations. Pablo de Sarasate (Navarra, 1844-1908) was a virtuos whose kindness made him be loved for people of his age. | | | | Piano will be the most important instrument in Romanticismo. First spanish piano compositions were written ca. 1773: Pedro Albeniz | |(1795-1855), son of Mateo Perez Albeniz connects with the music of the prior century. Other piano composers were Santiago de Masarnau | |(1805-1880), Eduardo Ocon (1834-1901). Jose Trago (1857-1934) and Joaquin Larregla (1865-1945), did learn out of Spain. |[pic] | |Pablo Sarasate | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Fernando Sor | | This is a good century for guitar because of Fernando Sor’s hands (Barcelona, 1778-1839), who also cultivated opera. As he was a | |partisan of french cause, he left Spain and succeeded as a guitarist in London and Paris, where he died. He composed for his friend and | |guitar player Dionisio Aguado (Madrid, 1784-1818) Two Friends. They are authors of both methods for guitar still reprinted today. | | | | | | |[pic] | |Francisco Tarrega | | The most important guitarrist was born in Castellon: Francisco Tarrega (Villarreal, 1852-1909). After succeeding in Madrid he did it | |in Paris, U. K. , Belgique, Suisse and Italy. Among his transcriptions of classic european musicians -or even Albeniz ones- his original | |Preludes and his Souvenirs from the Alhambra are often remembered. |[pic] | |Manuscript Prelude by Tarrega | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Paloma’s Verbena | | Choral music attracted artists like Gabriel Rodriguez because of european lied. Other authors tried to rescue opera: a good sample of| |it would be Marina (1855) by Emilio Arrieta (1823-1894) helped by Ramon Carnicer (Tarrega, 1789-1855). | | | Musical theater offered musicians immediate income. It contributed to the rebirth of zarzuela, dramatic partially sung composition | |from 17th century, whose name was taken from a little royal palace close to El Pardo. Its local setting has made it be rejected by many | |scholars. The fact is that musicians and theater-writters wrote zarzuela plays. Among the former, stands out Ruperto Chapi (Villena, | |1851-1909), attached to Madrid and author of The Court of Granada, The King Who Raged (1891). Among the latter, Ricardo de la Vega, | |author of La Revoltosa (1897) and The Dove Verbena. | | | | | | | Tomas Breton (Salamanca, 1850-1923), composed The Lovers of Teruel (1889), an opera that showed artistic features not coming from | |Italy. Best known are La Dolores (1895), Farinelli or The Dove Verbena. | | | | Joaquin Gaztambide (Tudela, 1822-1870) composed The Herald Woman (1849). At Cuba he performed The Conquest of Madrid. | |[pic] | |Joaquin R.
Gaztambide | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Asenjo Barbieri | | Asenjo Barbieri (Madrid, 1823-1894) did fight for the sake of music. He wrote on music and is the author of Bread and Bullfighting | |and -with a text by Luis Mariano de Larra- The Little Barber of Lavapies (1874). Other composers were Manuel Fernandez Caballero | |(1835-1906), author of The Nephews of Capitan Grant or Geronimo Gimenez (Seville, 1854-1923), writer of The Dancing of Luis Alonso | |(1896) and The Wedding of Luis Alonso (1897). | | | Federico Chueca (Madrid, 1846-1908) composed The Fun of the Garden (1900). He was loved because of his sense of humour and his | |sympathy towards the working class: he often played in bars, in spite of its lack of experience writing music. He composed -with a text | |by Valverde- La Gran Via (1886), a collection of scenes close to the revista, and Water, Sugar Pieces and Liquor. | | | | | | | | Zarzuela is included in Little Gener.
This name points out to the brevity of this kind of plays that was close to theater by hours. | | | | A trial of symphony was promoted by religious Miguel Hilarion Eslava (Navarra, 1807-1878) -master in Royal Chapel since 1847- and by | |Marcial del Adalid, Gabriel Balart (1824-1893), Casimiro Espino (1845-1888), Pedro Miguel Marques (Palma de Mallorca, 1843-1918) -the | |spanish “Beethoven”, composer of four symphonies-, Daniel Ortiz, and others. Religious music was decadent, in spite of the works by | |Rodriguez de Ledesma (1779-1848) or Hilarion Eslava himself. |[pic] | |The Little Barber of Lavapies | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Hilarion Eslava | | Among critics like Hilarion Eslava, Pena y Goni or Pablo Piferrer, Felipe Pedrell (Tortosa, 1841-1923) stands out with his Bilingual | |Dictionary of Musicians and Music Writers (1897). He composed La Celestina and a scenic trilogy: Los Pirineos (1902). He was an admirer | |of Wagner. | | | | Wagnerianism was practiced in Barcelone, by artists as Apeles Mestres (1854-1936). | | | | | | | Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909) was born in Camprodon (Gerona) and surprised because of his precociousness. He gave concerts in theaters as| |well as in cafe-bars as a piano player. His inspiration comes from popular music, though his original works went beyond. He deserved the| |estimation of Listz and the friendship of Debussy, Paul Dukas, Faure and Vincent d’Indy. In Spain he met Enrique Fernandez Arbos | |(1863-1939). Albeniz succeeded in Europe and America. | | | His works are collected in collections as Spanish Suite (1886), including Granada, Cadiz, Sevilla and Asturias; Remembers of a | |Traveller (ca. 1887) -with Rumours of the Caleta- and Songs from Spain (ca. 1898). In Niza, he composed the Suite Iberia (1905-1909): | |twelve pages for piano in four cahiers, almost finished at his death. His music for scene was less successful: The Magic Opal and | |Merlin. His personality marked an era for spanish music. | |[pic] | |Albeniz con G.
Faure | | | | | | | |[pic] | |Enrique Granados | | The works by Enrique Granados (Lerida, 1867-1916) have been less popular. It shares with musicians of his age a nationalism and a | |postromanticism, compatible with a deep interest for 18th century spanish music. That will take him to write Twelve Spanish Dances | |(1892) and two cahiers of Goyesques. The Majos in Love (1914) would be performed as an opera in the U. S. A. Granados was a professional | |and a teacher of piano since he was thirteen. He wrote Tonadillas and Love Songs for voice and piano and the Suite Elisenda for | |orchestra.
He died drowned when he tried to save his wife since the boat where both travelled was attacked by a german submarine. | | | | 20th Century |[pic] | | |Spanish Works (1909) | |This century opens with the | | |foundation of a Symphonic Orchestra | | |in Madrid (1904), followed by that | | |of Barcelone (1910). | | | | | Spanish music in 20th century | | |needs updating itself reaching the | | |level of other european musics. That| | |is called “Burning Stages” and | | |implies in this case studing | | |symphonism, atonalism and | | |dodecaphonism. | | | | | The most important artist, Manuel| | |de Falla (Cadiz, 1876-1946), began | | |his work writing operas as: The | | |Short Life, rewarded in 1905 and | | |performed in Paris (1907).
It would | | |be followed by Seven Spanish Songs | | |(1915). | | | Three nocturnes for piano and orchestra are known as Nights in Spanish Gardens (1911-1916). A year |[pic] | |before he had combined in The Sorcerer Love jondo singing with spanish andalusism. He collaborated with |Authograph of | |Picasso writing Three Cornered Hat (1919) for Diaghilev. The same year he composed his Baetica Phantasy |The Sorcerer Love | |for piano. | | | | | In Granada he wrote the Homage a Debussy (1920), two pages that sum his “integral” for guitar. He | | |projected in The Altarpiece of Maese Pedro (1923) traditional spanish motifs. He composed Psyche (1924) | | |and the Concert for Clavicembal and Five Instruments (1926), maybe his masterpiece. Then he created A | | |Sonnet to Cordoba (1927), Ballad of Mallorca and Suite of Hommages (1938-9) to Dukas, Pedrell, Arbos and | | |Debussy. | | http://www. spanisharts. com/musica/i_sigloXX. html