Since of OSH activities at national and or-

Since 1919, the International Labour Organization has maintained and developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. In today’s globalized economy, international labour standards are essential components in the international framework for ensuring that the growth of the global economy provides benefits to all. 1Occupational health and safety in its broadest sense, it should aim at the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; the adaptation of work to humans. Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration and participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes, involving consideration of issues relating to occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology, education, engineering safety, ergonomics.Occupational accidents define as any occupational injury or disease, which afflicts the worker during working hours or because of work and which hinders his performance. The term also includes fire, explosion or collapse at the workplace and “Serious accident”: any accident which causes the death of a worker or his disability by 50 % or the injury of more than one worker. 2A national framework for occupational safety and health management systemsNational policy:A competent institution or institutions should be nominated, as appropri- ate, to formulate, implement and periodically review a coherent national policy for the establishment and promotion of OSH management systems in organizations. This should be done in consultation with the most representative organizations of employ- ers and workers, and with other bodies as appropriate.Registration No 202-145264The national policy on OSH management systems should establish general principles and procedures to:(a) Promote the implementation and integration of OSH management systems as part of the overall management of an organization.(b) Facilitate and improve voluntary arrangements for the systematic identification, planning, implementation and improvement of OSH activities at national and or- ganization levels.(c) Promote the participation of workers and their representatives at organization level.(d) Implement continual improvement while avoiding unnecessary bureaucracy, ad- ministration and costs.(e) promote collaborative and support arrangements for OSH management systems at the organization level by labour inspectorates, occupational safety and health services and other services, and channel their activities into a consistent frame- work for OSH management.(f) Evaluate the effectiveness of the national policy and framework at appropriate in- tervals.(g) Evaluate and publicize the effectiveness of OSH management systems and prac- tice by suitable means; and(h) Ensure that the same level of safety and health requirements applies to contractors and their workers as to the workers, including temporary workers, employed di- rectly by the organization.3. With a view to ensuring the coherence of the national policy and of arrangements for its implementation, the competent institution should establish a na- tional framework for OSH management systems to:(a) Identify and establish the respective functions and responsibilities of the various institutions called upon to implement the national policy, and make appropriate arrangements to ensure the necessary coordination between them.(b) Publish and periodically review national guidelines on the voluntary application and systematic implementation of OSH management systems in organizations.Registration No 202-145264(c) Establish criteria, as appropriate, for the designation and respective duties of the institutions responsible for the preparation and promotion of tailored guidelines on OSH management systems; and(d) Ensure that guidance is available to employers, workers and their representatives to take advantage of the national policy.The competent institution should make arrangements and provide techni- cally sound guidance to labour inspectorates, OSH services and other public or private services, agencies and institutions dealing with OSH, including health-care providers, to encourage and help organizations to implement OSH management systems.National guidelines:National guidelines on the voluntary application and systematic imple- mentation of OSH management systems, taking into consideration national conditions and practice. There should be consistency between the ILO guidelines, the national guidelines and the tailored guidelines, with sufficient flexibility to permit direct appli- cation or tailored application at the organization level.Tailored guidelines1. Tailored guidelines, reflecting the overall objectives of the ILO guide- lines, should contain the generic elements of the national guidelines and should be de- signed to reflect the specific conditions and needs of organizations or groups of organizations, taking into consideration particularly:(a) Their size (large, medium and small) and infrastructure; and(b) The types of hazards and degree of risks.2. The links between the national frameworks for OSH management systems (OSH-MS).Occupational safety and health policy1. The employer, in consultation with workers and their representatives, should set out in writing an OSH policy, which should be:(a) Specific to the organization and appropriate to its size and the nature of its activ- ities.Registration No 202-145264(b) Concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by the signature or endorse- ment of the employer or the most senior accountable person in the organization.(c) Communicated and readily accessible to all persons at their place of work.(d) Reviewed for continuing suitability; and(e) Made available to relevant external interested parties, as appropriate.2. The OSH policy should include, as a minimum, the following key prin- ciples and objectives to which the organization is committed:(a) Protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work-related injuries, ill health, diseases and incidents;(b) complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations, voluntary pro- grammes, collective agreements on OSH and other requirements to which the or- ganization subscribes;(c) Ensuring that workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of the OSH management system; and(d) Continually improving the performance of the OSH management system.3. The OSH management system should be compatible with or integrated in other management systems in the organization.? Role of Ministries (Health and Labour) in Sudan;Their roles are:? Coordinate, in accordance with the adopted general policy, the activities of the executive bodies in charge of workers.? Calculate and count, on a regular basis, the number of workers and submit to the Minister all the information and recommendations, which it deems necessary for submission to the Council of Ministers.? Supervise the implementation of the adopted labor programmes in a manner, which is adapted to the plans for development.Registration No 202-145264? Perform any other activities related to labor which the Minister may assign it to perform within the framework of the General Policy adopted by the Council of Ministers.Ministry of Manpower in Sudan activated accident-recording code of 1997 on 2005. Before that time, there was no accident data. Their objective is to achieve healthy workplaces activities and to promote, protect the health and safety of people at work by preventing workplace-related fatalities, illnesses, injuries, and personal health risks, training in prevention physical and chemical injuries since its highly relevant to the situation in Sudan.The main legislation on occupational safety and health is contained in the Labour Code of 1997, and List of Factories Decree of 1981 and List of Factories (occupational health) of 1981. More recently the Tobacco Control Law was approved in 2005.? Duty to comply with OSH-related requirements.? Right of employees to remove themselves from a dangerous situation in the event of a serious threat to the safety or health? Right to be reassigned to non-hazard work? Consultation, collaboration and co-operation with workers and their representatives? Workers’ right to select their representatives for health and safety matters? Employers shall take the necessary precautions to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupational diseases? Surveillance of workers’ health in relation to work? Factory owners must perform periodic medical check-ups for workers working in hazardous locations? Surveillance of the working environment and working practices? Duty to provide personal protective equipment? Duty to ensure the usage of personal protective equipment? Duty to provide first-aid and welfare facilities? Standards on toilets and sanitary installations shall be available for men and womenRegistration No 202-145264Tobacco Control Law of 2005:It is not permitted for the workers mentioned to use tobacco during the performance of the following functions:(a) The workers in the field of manufacturing, preparing, or providing food meant for human consumption during service delivery.(b) Physicians working in a place where health services are provided and treatment during service delivery.(c) Workers during delivery of lessons or other educational activities.(d) Workers in the public or private sector during service delivery to the public.”It is not permitted to use tobacco in the following places:1. Public places.2. Closed places.Public places means “places where people gather without discrimination and includes: places of worship, learning, public means of transportation, places providing health care, government libraries, sporting facilities, gardens, public parks and any other public places identified by regulations. Closed places means “closed rooms intended for public use including ports, airports, transit stops, cinemas, theaters, museums, restaurants, hotels, commercial locations, electrical lifts, closed ladders to buildings, workshops, laboratories, closed warehouses, libraries, halls, rooms intended for use by more than one person at a single time, and any other closed place identified by regulations.3There are many issue facing the occupational health and safety at work and is there is no great effort or legislation made from the ministry of health to help in the maintenance and sustainability of safety at work and that is probably due to lack of contact between ministry of health and ministry of labour. Also there is no quite developed supervision to for monitoring and evaluation of the safety at different kind of occupations and lack of training for workers in order to process their daily work in safety environments away from hazardous that threats their life.Registration No 202-145264All of these occur due to no standards or certain laws or even expertise to put the safety of lives as their highest priority.Conclusion: In my opinion, all ministries should co-operate and to put a certain vision followed by a mission to achieve the safety for everyone at work because it’s a human right for everyone to live their life free of any hazardous substance or anything that threats their lives in form of disease or even death. This should be under a great a supervision of well expertise to provide full training for all workers to know their right and monitoring of the safety process at work , a collaboration of the government is required to make a law to improve the health and safety at work.

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