sensing important for communication. Energy consumption can be

sensing unit, E memory is the energy consumed by the
memory unit and E transceiver is the energy consumed by the transceiver unit.Since
network lifetime is an important performance criterion Sensor nodes operate for
years. Energy consumption plays an important role in network lifetime. In
working with network mobility is an important factor. About 70% of network’s
energy is consumed in data communication. By taking average of Received Signal
Strength (RSS) values, transmission power can be enhanced by Cross-Layer design
approach for Power Control.


S.Muthurajkumar  et
al 3 Two important aspects of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are Energy
consumption and security. Using trust management, key management, ?rewalls and
intrusion detection security is provided in MANET. It is essential to consider
the energy and security aspects in routing algorithms since energy and security
are important for communication. Energy consumption can be reduced
automatically by the prevention of security attacks on routing protocols and
cluster based routing. Trust score evaluation, routing and
threshold setting using the trust values are the phases in trust based secure
routing algorithm. In trust score evaluation process the trust score for
individual nodes are calculated based on constraints like nodes which are
genuinely sending their acknowledgement to neighbors when they received the
packets are treated as first group and 
the nodes which drop more packets are considered as and  the nodes which drop more packets are
considered as group two nodes. Now, the initial trust score is computed using
the Eq that represents the percentage of 

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 TS1i = (ACK / RP )
* 100                                     


ACK = No. of acknowledgements sent to the neighbors , TS1i = First trust
score in percentage for ith node, RP = No. of packets received from 
neighbors second trust score is computed using Eq (3) which calculates
the dropped packets


TS1i = 100-((DP
/ TDP) * 100)                              (3)


DP = No. of packets dropped, TDP = Total number of packets
dropped in network. TS2i = Second trust score percentage
for ith node. The overall trust score of the particular node
is calculated using Eq. (4)


= (TSli + TS2i) / 2                                         (4)



TS1i = First trust score for node i, TS2i = -Second trust
score for node I, TSi = Overall trust score for node i.


 For developing a cluster based network a
clustering scheme is developed with clusters. A Cluster based Energy Ef?cient
Secure Routing Algorithm (CEESRA) is proposed for providing effective routing.
Malicious nodes can be avoided and detected using the trust score. A dynamic
clustering technique not only uses low mobility nodes, energy consumption,
trust values and distance parameters for providing the energy ef?cient secure
routing algorithm. The proposed algorithm provides better performance in terms
of packet drop ratio, residual energy, security and throughput when compared to
the existing techniques.


N.Magadevi et al 4 The wireless
nodes have limited power resource in Wireless Sensor Networks. To recharge the
batteries of the wireless nodes Wireless charging is an alternative. Using a
single mobile anchor a wireless recharging and also localization are proposed.
Localization provides the position information. Static node is located by the
mobile anchor first and then it receives the battery level. Later static nodes
are recharged if the static node battery is lesser than the threshold limit. Fundamental
unit of sensor network is sensor node. It comprises of   sensors, microprocessor, transceiver , memory
and power supply. An Adhoc network with a collection of number of sensor nodes
is Wireless Sensor Network. It is used in many ?elds like disaster rescue, intrusion
detection and in health care applications. Gateway between the WSN and the
other network is sink node. Noise Ratio (SNR), increased ef?ciency, improved
robustness and scalability are the advantages in WSN. In designing WSN there
are several challenges like software development, deployment, localization,
hardware design, routing protocol and coverage. For effective data
communication and computation sensor node must be accurate. In the advancement
of wireless sensor networks effective localization system must be developed.Range
free localization algorithms do not require distance or angle measurements.
Along with the wireless charging localization problem is addressed here. Sensor
senses the data and communicates with the base station through Multi hop
communication. In Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network an effective and
controllable energy harvesting scheme is to be adopted. Thus proposed method
improves the network’s lifetime.


Wen-KuangKuo et al 5 The energy
consumption of battery-powered mobile devices can be increased by measured in
bits per Joule for MANETs. By jointly considering routing multimedia
applications the energy ef?ciency (EE) is an essential aspect of mobile ad hoc
networks (MANETs). Based on the cross-layer design paradigm EE optimization is,
traf?c scheduling, and power control a non convex mixed integer nonlinear
programming is modeled as a problem. Branch and bound (BB) algorithm is devised
to ef?ciently solve this optimal problem.





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