The Research Methods in Psychology. McGraw-Hill Williams, Carrie

The case study research explores an event, activity, person, process or program in depth. According to Williams (2005), it is a critical analysis of the single or bounded cases within a specified time frame. The structure of the research takes an extensive data collection procedure in the form of a problem, an issue, lesson or, context. Procedure of collecting data in a case study results from multiple resources such as observation, records, artefacts, interviews and general studies. The conclusion therefore portrays a connection to the studied theories.

(Zechmeister et al, 2008) The observational research method, for instance the ethological studies facilitates surveillance and recording of phenomena. In most cases, the research studies are naturally qualitative. A well elaborated and detailed report includes the measures of behaviour and time as qualitative surveys. Correlation research examines the variation between two or more variables for instance; a research can correlate the smoking habits to the diseases they cause. The techniques for caring out this research include collection of the experimental data, observation without manipulation, thus the difficulty in concluding on the causes and effects. Correlation involves a relationship but it is difficult to find out if it is a casual relationship. It is an exploration mainly built up at the beginning of the research since it lacks final verdict (Zechmeister et al, 2008).

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Experimental research is conducted in an effort to find an outcome or enforce control over other related variable beside the one on analysis. Experiments are mainly imposed on an independent variable in the laboratory for manipulation or comparison to find out its influence on the dependent variables. This research uses various control groups as the basis for comparing the experiments. The quasi-experiment research has similarity to the true experiment due to major manipulation s and comparison, but the pre-existing control groups are naturally formed.

The variables on study in this research are subject as opposed to independent for instance age. This forms a limitation to the conclusion however, other related variables can account for the same conclusion. According to Zechmeister et al (2008), sometimes these groups are out of control and thus can have different outcomes. The first project situation is ambiguous thus the possibility for various classifications, but it mainly involves observational research technique.

The researcher monitors the behaviour of the girl and observably relates the reaction at various times, to adopt the conclusion that relates to the behaviour. The observational technique is therefore backed by the correlation to deliver the result. The research has strong ethical implication due to the instance to determine behaviour through the observational technique. This seems like the mixed method approach such as combining the qualitative and quantitative approaches. The second situation utilizes the quasi experimental research technique because of the existing naturally pre-defined control groups, namely females and males. Scientifically, the behaviour of the student is the determining factor or sole measure of the possible need for affiliation. The experiment can be a basis for some ethical aspects because the act cannot explicitly determine behaviour. In the last scenario, the correlation research is used due to the variables present for analysis of behaviour.

The variables: competitive and cooperative approaches determine the response or final decision by the researcher.


Today researchers implement various research finding methods in the aims of qualitative or quantitative research to provide the desired results. The methods are however scientifically designed to offer communicative functions of various forms.

In line with Zechmeister et al (2008), quantitative gives the final measure of reality while qualitative explores existence of better understanding of complex phenomenon.


Zechmeister, Jeanne, Zechmeister, Eugene, and Shaughnesey, John. (2008) Essential of Research Methods in Psychology. McGraw-Hill Williams, Carrie B.

(2005). The lived experiences of women in executive positions of the United States federal civil service. D.M.

dissertation, University of Phoenix, Arizona


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