Reconstruction is definitely one of the most significant historical event on the U.S.
history. After the Civil War, bring southern states back to one country became a big issue. The reconstruction lasted about fourteen years. The period from 1863 to 1866, led by the two presidents of Abraham Lincoln who was delicate to reunify the country. The period from 1866 to 1873, focus on the reform of free black civil rights and their voting rightsThe reconstruction began it was the period under the led of two presidents of Lincoln. President Lincoln, the leader of the federal union, who was delicate into the freedom of blacks and the reunify of the country. The forgiveness of Lincoln The main policy of the president Lincoln is to pardon most southern “treasons”, and to rebuild the government on the basis of white voters.
All the equality and fair treat have to give credit to President Lincoln. Before the end of Civil War, Lincoln has put forward two compromises for the return of the Southern States. The Southern States must abolish and prohibits slavery, as well as the punishing crimes and involuntary slavery. Which made huge process on abolish and after the certify of the equal rights. The second comprised is Lincoln’s reconstruction plan-the 10% plan, it decreed that a state could join into the Union when 10% of the 1860 vote count from that state had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. The next step in the process would be for the states to formally elect a state government.
Also,a state legislature could write a new constitution,but it also had to abolish slavery forever. These two compromises seem to be very aggressive about the seeking of racial equality. After the civil war finished, the first compromise ratified as thirteen amendments. Later in 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment was approved. The amendment announces that “all the people born and naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and his state. ” Which certificated the citizenship of former slaves. Few years later 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment was approved. The amendment states that “no federal union or any state shall refuse to vote for citizens because of race, color or previous slavery.
” The right to vote for the blacks expanded from the south to the whole country. After all these equal treaties had been listed out, U.S. was basically achieved the accomplishment of the black emancipation. However, the things did not go as they anticipated. Since the war finished, southern whites were reluctant to compromise with the racial equality. Therefore, in order prevent the equal rights “black codes” came out.
The black codes were designed to confine blacks’ activity, restrain their wealth, the right to carry weapon, availability as a labor force and forbidden to be involved with any whites. Although, the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments came out later tried to depress the black codes, but It did not total vanish until 1964. Throughout the history, the first civil rights act on protecting the rights of blacks was found in 1866. In 1871 and 1875, two civil rights bills came out. However, since then, in the past 80 years, there were no more rights act has been established in the United States, Until 1964 the next civil right act came out named 1964 Civil Rights Act. In other words, it took 100 years to get the black rights in the reconstruction period to be accepted and recognized by American society.In the southern United States, slavery was invovled for hundreds of years, racism was comment existed. Slavery is one of the main causes of civil war.
However, racism was also visible in the north. In 1860, 23 of the northern states, only 5 states in new England granted suffrage to blacks, the other 17 states deprived of the rights of blacks. Only 7% of blacks lived in the state that gave them the right to vote.
The other 93% of the blacks couldn’t enjoy this right. 1710) this situation has not been greatly improved after the end of the civil war. Before the Fifteenth Amendment was approved in 1870, there were only 17 states in the 37 states of the United States that gave the right to blacks to vote.
There was also international upheaval going on around reconstruction. In 1876, King Leopold II held an geographical conference brussels in Belgium. This conference attracted more than ten European countries to deviate Africa. In the next few decades, except for Libya and Ethiopia, there were no more African countries independent. In Asia, the Russian Empire accelerated the pace of colonial expansion from 1860s, and occupied the great among of land around the middle asia, and occupied the vast territory of China’s border areas. At the same time, France conquered Annan and Laos .
The British occupied the Malay Peninsula and the North Borneo.The white predominant the whole world. In another word, the world at that time was full of racism and colonialism, and there was no atmosphere of racial equality. The international circumstance evoked the whites racial superiority, led the pursuit of racial equality became harder.
The reconstruction made a great impact to eliminate racism in the south of the United States,and the political status of the black people was greatly enhanced. Secondly, in the period of reconstruction, due to the large number of blacks and poor whites began to vote, to be able to establish the public school system, the construction of southern public facilities and industrialization has been considerable developed. In a word, although reconstruction fail, but it is a glorious chapter in the history of the United States.