Scientific research indicates that social change is inevitable as human beings continue to move from industrial to post industrial age.
Social change entails changes in social and institutional patterns. Duffy and Artwater (8) point out that various challenges face societies due to the rapid changes in technology, and particularly in this age of communications technology, which has made the world a global village. Challenges abound, people are growing up in a world of greater independence and freedom.
Research indicates that people, especially women and individuals with the lowest education levels, suffer from technophobia, a problem directly related to technology (Christine 2). In addition, government controls and increased centralization, worker alienation, inequalities in the social and economic dimension, high inflation, unemployment, poverty and racism seem to be inherent in the system.
Other challenges paused are rapid population growth, environmental pollution, and scarcity of resources. Duffy and Artwater (8) suggest that to overcome all these challenges, American society must accommodate cultural diversity and embrace the need to learn more about ourselves.
In the American society, people are vulnerable to insecurity, individualism that entails individual success, loneliness, and confusion. (Duffy and Artwater 8). Decidophobia, on individual level, makes one unable to make life’s most important and critical decisions, a problem rampant in the modern society (Christine 6).
In addition, the challenges of drifting along without choosing on how to live seem guided by no ties. Duffy and Artwater have shown that establishing strong codes in society can help overcome these problems, while enhancing and perpetuating tradition. Decision making at family level on a shared platform with clearly understood agreements contributes to the alleviation of these problems.
Further still, authority should identify the kind of strategy and personality to use, which may be government, expert, religious body, or an institution. Duffy and Artwater (8), report that, most people in today’s society pursue more freedom, but see their parents in the industrial age constrained all round ranging from education to economic assertion, which they have escaped.
However, new postindustrial generation enjoy more and flexible options in family matters, family and friends, wealth acquisition, freedom on where to live, sex and marriages, and travel. These, compared to the industrial age indicate a gap in positive freedom, more asserted in the postindustrial generation (Duffy and Artwater 9).
Further still, it is quite challenging to reconcile new and old rules, as they at certain points seem to be divergent. The rapid accumulation of social changes has given rise to new rules, which focus more on individualism, a shift to self-indulgence. This provides a critical point of shift from the old to the new. This entrenches the facts of giving and getting (Christine 45). This pact identifies personal relationship, work, and the community expectations.
While self-denial signifies the old pact, loyalty in the postindustrial era can undergo assessment at the level of individual gain, and if there is self-denial, what one likely to gain in return for giving to the society. There is need for corrective balance between an individual and self-sacrifice. Gradually, smooth transition from the traditional authorities to people’s self-actualization behavior needs much emphasis (Christine 65).
The study of personality revolves around the characteristic set of an individual that influence cognition and behavior. One of these is Eli’s theory of personality. This theory emphasizes on the need for an agent to triggers action or behavior. The resulting reaction or emotional change to the event elicits emotional behavior.
Therefore, this theory focuses on changing an individual’s thoughts and beliefs to change behavior. This theory, best illustrated below consists of six components commonly referred to as the A-B-C theory of personality. The components include an activating agent, belief, disputing intervention, emotional and behavioral consequences, effects, and new feelings.
A (activating agent) B (belief) C (emotional and behavioral consequences)
D9 (disputing intervention) E (effects) F (new feelings)
According to this theory, therapists can help individuals in positive decision-making. This helps psychologists underpin actual causes of poor decision-making strategies. It unearths root causes of personal problems such as failures in exams and helps therapists instruct their clients on how to prepare and take corrective positive actions. Elli’s theory helps therapists identify ideas, which he calls “self-defeating” if believed leads an individual to self-destruction.
Elli asserts that for an individual to have sincere love expectantly looking for approval from people one values is a degenerating element. Christine (127) points out that the theory identifies how individuals identify their needs in relation to the idea of proving competence or exceptional talent. It identifies those certain negative issues inherent in an individual for diagnosis not necessarily through punishment.
Punishment, according to the theory, may not be indispensably necessary those who have wronged an individual. Further still, the theory refutes claims that life is wickedly awful when things do not go according to one’s wishes, emotional pressure evolves from within, fear and upset from awful events, failure to take self-rewarding actions, happiness is achieved through inertia and inaction, possession of exceptional order by an individual, and that one can rate self on a universal scale.
This theory suffers from the weakness of not probing a problem afflicting and individual and unearthing its deep-rooted nature. The theory’s other weakness is that it only identifies the thought patterns of an individual and based on these assumptions, it relies on already well established behavioral procedures to correct an individual’s psychoanalytical needs.
Another weakness in this theory revolves round the quest for an in-depth solution to the irrational ideas inherent in individuals. A closer look at this theory suggests that people who commit suicide are bad in the society. Personality should not be limited to cognitive theory only. Cognition should be one of the basis upon which personality is studied.
In addition, this theory should be blended and modified to suit modern trends in life as life keeps on changing. Changes in life from the industrial to the post-industrial era have come along with accumulation of many individual problems that need various therapeutic approaches. Inclusive of the modern approaches to therapy, should be an in-depth exploration of an individual’s behavior, emotional effects, interpersonal relationships, self- image, cognition, and sensation.
Research indicates that psychotherapy is a vital component in society particularly due to the accumulation of post-industrial societal problems. According to Duffy and Artwater (352), individuals need self-actualization, courage to affirm self, and power for positive living. This enhances openness in an individual and the society. Visiting a psychotherapist enables individuals make positive decisions and enhances critical thinking skills.
One’s growth is essential in the modern society. To enable people develop positively, psychotherapeutic treatments make individuals understand how avoid and not succumb to boredom with its associated evils. In addition, counseled individuals have a high degree of avoiding tendencies such as, suppression, drug use, violence, and irresponsible sexual acts.
Certain medical conditions demand psychological rather than application of drugs. Such drugs include psychoactive drugs most commonly prescribed in the Unite States. These tranquilizers are used on individuals going through difficulty times with stress related disorders, and withdrawal from drug use. However, these drugs have devastating side effects such as fatigue, drowsiness, impaired motor functioning, and other fatal implications on an individual’s health.
Evidently, for cases, which need therapeutic solution, these are the best alternatives to take. A host of drugs are available which are administered on patients with a variety of serious medical conditions or who exhibit certain symptoms. These include drugs such as lithium, for bipolar disorder, antipsychotic drugs, for people with schizophrenia, a severe disorder.
While these drugs play a vital role in curbing and giving due attention to those affected, its clear from scientific research that various alternatives exist. Psychotherapists recommend that patients may undertake exercise by doing community work, which acts as a vital link in relieving stress related problems (Duffy and Artwater 362).
Other reasons for visiting include the treatment of the whole person. While drug administration may do away with certain symptoms in a patient, it could be vital to visit such clinics as a way of detecting the possibility of a problem and treat it without certain problems surfacing too late to be diagnosed.
It is important for individuals to visit such clinics for personal growth, self-actualization, and to discover themselves. In addition, the therapist to choose must be consistent with the needs of an individual’s needs. Personal needs drive one to determine which therapist to visit. This implies that a person should evaluate one’s medical condition, personal needs, and whether the problems are in the cognitive category, or whatever the category of the problem.
Research, however indicates that some therapeutic methods are superior to others, implying that a client should choose from the variety the best therapy to attend (Duffy and Artwater 364). However, though the type of therapy does not influence the outcome from a client’s treatment, an articulate patient is more likely to benefit from such treatment by a large extent. This implies that the type of therapy does not really affect the outcome but the expertise of the therapist and the patient.
In addition, when choosing a therapist, factors to consider include, professional training of the therapist, certification, and the comfort derived from the therapist by the client. These include listening to the client, and the therapist capability to understand the client (Duffy and Artwater 366).
Artwater, Eastwood, and Duffy g. Karen Psychology for Living: Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Tody 7th edition ISBN: 0-13-040950-2
Christine, Brain. Advanced psychology: applications, issues and perspectives. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ISBN 0174900589: (2002)