Recently, private vehicle growth, a range of transportation

Recently, the use of private vehicle constantly grew out. In order
to accommodate the increased private vehicle growth, a range of transportation
demands management measures have been studied to reduce private vehicle usage.
Some of these measures are intended to improve the attractiveness of
alternative transport modes such public transport. Public transport can be
defined as transport service which is available for use by the general public
such as bus, taxi, and rail-based transport. According to Oxford Dictionary
public transport means the services that charge set fares such as buses, trains,
and other forms of transport that is available to the public. A study by Leigh
Grover (2011) found that public transport mostly defined as the provision by
states, private owners, and corporations that could be enjoyed by the broader

It is really important to increase public transport mode choice.
There is a need to improve the quality of the public transport services such as
accessibility. However, this cannot be done without understanding people needs
and their preference of using the public transport. There are many aspects that
should be understood thoroughly and one of it is mode choice decision which is
considered necessary for expecting the future growth for each mode. Mode choice
refers to the process of where the means of travelling is determined. The means
of travel can be defined as the travel mode, which can be made by private
vehicle, public transport or active transport.

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A study by Ortuzar and Willumsen (2002) found that mode choice
behavior for public transport is an important element, because it provides the
basis for urban public transport planning and management policy making.
According to Mandel et al. (1997) it has a direct impact on the design of
transport system structure as it affects the overall efficiency with which
people can travel and the amount of space needed in order for transport to functions.
A lot of effort needs to be taken in order to attract the users of private
vehicle to shift their mode choice to public transport. However it is not easy
to influence mode choice decision as it depends on various factors. Public
transport mode choice depends on the peoples’ choice and preference to use it
(Jian Chen and Shoujie Li, 2017). It explains individual choice as the
consequence of preferences that an individual makes, with the assumptions that
they choose the most preferred option that gives them benefit.

relationship between mode choice decisions and the causal factors has been
explored in many studies. A study by Koppelman and Pas (1980) found that public
transport mode choice not only influenced by the measurable factors such as
age, gender, occupation, and others. However it also influenced by immeasurable
factors such as service quality. According to FitzRoy and Smith (1998) service
quality such as reliability, accessibility, comfort and many others is another
direct and powerful variable that influence the public transport usage.
Therefore, the ways public transport services are delivered as well as their
qualities are important as it affect the attitude and behavior of travelers on
their mode choice decision. Moreover, Van Waerden et al. (2002) has stated that
the mode choice decision also sensitive to unexpected occasions such as extreme
climate and significant changes in one’s individual life such as a change of house
location. Generally, all these factors are likely to stimulate changes in mode
choice decisions.

On a daily basis, millions of passengers used and evaluated public
transport services. Although the unified principles and prevalence of public
transport service worldwide, there are significant differences in the perceive
quality of public transport service provided. There are many factors
influencing public transport mode choice, however for this study, the
researcher chose reliability, accessibility, and safety for its independent
variables. It has been supported by Silcock (1981), whereby it was founded that
there are five major factors influence to public transport usage, namely
accessibility, reliability, comfort, convenience and safety.

Previous studies established that
reliability is one of the most vital aspects of service quality aspects by
travelers. According to Carrel et al. (2015) public transport mode choice are
significantly influenced by reliability of travel time based on personal
experienced. A deviation from schedule makes public transport unreliable.
Unreliable public transport is a main constraint to existing and potential
passengers (Ceder, 2016). It was also constantly ranked among the top
inconvenience cause in passengers’ travel experience of public transport
(Chakrabarti 2015). Hence, it is important to understand the concept of
reliability of public transport service as well as increase existing and
potential passengers’ trust of the public transport service.

A reliable public transport service
is one that follows the schedule and whose service run on-time. Reliability can
be defined as a measure of the likelihood of a trip to take place in accordance
with the predicted trip elements, such as travel time, comfort and cost (Ap.
Sorratini et al., 2008). In other words, according to Ceder (2016) reliability
of public transport service can generally mean one that constantly operates
based on its schedule or time table. It also can defined as level of
dependability on waiting time, riding time, passenger load, vehicle quality,
safety, amenities, and information. Furthermore, Cham (2006) defined
reliability as the availability and stability of travel attributes at a given
point influencing the passengers’ mode choice decision.

In order for a public
transport service to be reliable, it is vital to ensure that the service is
always on time and punctual. It can be reflect on its “on-time” performance
where the schedule and actual trips is similar. In other words, on-time
performance measures how well actual departures and arrivals follow the
scheduled departures and arrivals. Acceptable delay or earliness of public
transport service depends on the perspectives of passenger. According to Cham (2006) it is not “on-time if the public transport departs early because it shows that passengers have to wait a full
headway until the next public transport arrives. For instance, Diab et al. (2015)
stated that Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) practice
1 minute early and 4 minutes late range of time to measure public transport
service on-time performance. In addition, Zeithaml (2009)
mentioned that if the service is not continuously reliable, there is a chance
that passengers will not trust and confidence with its reliability and will
switch to other mode choice such as private vehicle.

Headway also is an
important indicator of reliable public transport service. Headway is where the
time between two vehicles passing the same point traveling in the same way on a
given route. Since passengers arrive randomly without consulting public transport
schedule, headway is a good instruments to measure reliability for high
frequency route and service. According to Cham (2006) irregular headways lead
to variability in expected waiting times. Decrease in the level of headway regularity has resulted in
an impact that passengers experience known as “bunching” phenomena. For
instance, bunching happen when the next bus are able to catch the previous
scheduled bus. It reduces the predictability of the service since it increases
average waiting time for passengers. Therefore,
it shows that the public transport service has a low level of reliability and

Next, reliability of
public transport service also depends on passengers’ wait or waiting time. A
study by Furth & Muller (2006) found that wait time plays a crucial role in
influencing demand of users and public transport service reliability as it is
the main influence factor for passengers from using public transport. In
addition, passengers give a greater value to
waiting time than the value they give to in-vehicle time (Van Oort & Nes,
2004). Constantly reduce the entire waiting and
travel time is the passengers’ perception of reliability (Diab et al., 2015). For instance, the public transport service
is unreliable if the passengers have to spend more time to travel from their original
place to the place of consumption. Moreover, Psarros et al. (2011) concludes
that passengers perceive that they spend more time waiting for public transport
than the actual waiting period. Hence in order to attract more people to use
public transport, it is important to minimize passenger waiting time since wait
times are part of travel time.

 A growing and expanding urban metropolitan region is closely
related to the provision of sufficient and suitable transport services.
According to Currie et al. (2007), Lucas (2005) and Lucas (2010) an expanding
urban population needs access to participation in life opportunities in order to
reach activities and services such as work, education, and social-recreational
activities. There are many definitions of accessibility found in the literature
review from previous studies. However, there is no universally fixed and agreed
definition of accessibility. Nevertheless, a general definition of accessibility
is refers to the easiness of
which a destination can be reached from the original location (Holden et al.,
2005). According to Jean-Paul Rodrigue (2017), accessibility is defined as the
measure of the ability of a location to be reached by, or to reach different

The concept of accessibility in transport can be divided into two
different perspectives. As stated by Givoni & Rietveld (2007) and
Moniruzzaman & Páez (2012) the first perspective is proximity relative to
the points of access to the public transport services both at origin and
destination. The proximity in accessing public transport is highly connected
with the walking distance. Accessibility to public transport is typically
considered to be good if persons are within walking distance from a public
transport stop, station, or terminal to their destination. A study by Gutiérrez
& García-Palomares (2008) found that walking distances of 0.40 km (400 m)
are usually considered the maximum distance people are willing to walk and it
influences people in choosing public transport as their mode choice. In
addition, Alan T. Murray, Rex Davis, Robert J. Stimson, and Luis Ferreira (1998)
interpreted that the coverage distance of 400m represents a comfortable walk
for most people under common situations.

There are various elements that are related with walking distance
namely density, diversity and design. These elements play a crucial role in
influencing people to use public transport. According to R. Cervero &
Kockelman (1997) it is associated with the build environment and usually called
the 3D’s both at trip origin and destination. The characteristic of the built
environment including pedestrian rooftop, footways, lighting, bicycle parking rack,
and many others which provides
accessibility has influenced public transport mode choice (Cervero et al.,
2009; Handy et al., 2002; and Frumkin et al., 2004). Sufficient and appropriate
bicycle and pedestrian accommodations or facilities has provided accessibility
for the public transport users regardless of age, physical constraint, or
income. In a report of City of Bellevue Transportation Plan, found that these
facilities has complement and public transport in a way that it connects
“somewhere to somewhere” by conveniently serving the places where people live,
work and play, and filling gaps in the public transport network.

The second perspective refers to the easiness of using the public
transport service. It is associated with fares, special facilities, and
information which all add to people’s ability and motivation to use public
transport. Public transport fares must be made affordable for all different
level of people. According to Ferdous N et al. (2010) affordability generally
referred to people’s financial ability to pay for or purchase transport-related
services and goods. The fares structure must not burden the passengers’
especially low-income passengers as they have very limited transportation
alternatives. If passengers are not able to pay for public transport service,
then they cannot use it which it also leads to reducing their ability to access
other place such as for work. Passengers can access or use the public transport
by increasing the affordability of public transport travel through targeted
discounts and subsidies that reduce public transport fares relative to wages
(Toronto Public Transport Association, 2013).

Next, as for accessibility for the disabled in using public
transport services, there are several factors that need to be taken into account.
The disabled people and their relatives face more challenges and difficulties
while travelling and using the public transport. Although there are many
advances in transport systems in a country, the accessibility to the public transport
services still did not meet the requirements. Disabled people did not receive
the same treatment as the non-disabled (Kennedy and Hesla, 2008). Accessibility
for disabled people can be improved by providing universal design and removing
the feature that creates a barrier. According to International Best Practice in
Accessible Public Transportation for Persons with Disabilities (2010) disabled
people use public transport as their mode choice if they are easily get to the
bus stop, station and curbside. The disabled people must be easily aboard,
locate and secure themselves in the vehicle.

The provision and easiness in accessing public transport
information especially real-time information has been shown to encourage
individuals to choose public transport as their mode choice of travelling
(Schweiger, 2003). A study by (Multisystem, 2003) found that real-time public
transport traveler information can result in a mode-shift to public transport.
The requirements for accurate real-time information are increases especially
with a large number of passengers transferring between different modes.
Generally, real-time information can be defined as any information available
for public transport users such as the up-to-date status of vehicles, including
predictive arrival times and approximate locations. Based on a study conducted
in Hong Kong, it was found that passengers derived the greatest benefit from
real-time information delivered via a mobile device or internet website. It is
used as an individual-specific travel demand management tool that facilitates
individuals while planning their public transport trips.



Safety and security of public transport user is significantly
interrelated with one another. It is important to ensure that public transport
is safe and secure to operate and use as it closely relates with great numbers
of passengers and their lives. Generally, safety can be defined as exposure to
accidental injury normally involving at least one vehicle as the instrument
causing the injury. While, transport security is known as exposure to
intentional criminal or antisocial acts faced by transport user. According to
(Cozens et al., 2004) the public’s perception of
safety and security are important determinant of people’s mode choice. Public
transport is a relatively safe mode as it tends to have lower injury, death,
crash, and crime rates as compared to private vehicle. Regardless of how safe
the public transport, a lot of people still view public transport as dangerous
and they also discourage others to use it.

In order to
promote public transport usage, it is important to pay more attention to the
safety of public transport although public
transport is usually safer to use as compared to private vehicle. According to
Savage (2013) public transport has relative low crash rates than private
vehicle. Crash from the perspectives of public transport refers to property injuries,
damages and deaths caused by vehicle crashes. Normally, public transport crash
involved with buses and taxi. A study by (Davidse et al., 2003) found that the
most common types of crash are crashes involving blind spots, buses causing
rear-end collisions while braking and crashes on bus lanes. Moreover, about 31%
of fatal public transport accidents involve an impaired driver and 30% involves
speeding (NHTSA 2012). However, there are still have other main risks beyond
individual drivers’ control, such as mechanical failures and faults by other
road users.

On the other hand, according to number of studies by Van
der Reis (1997), Page et al. (2001), National Transport Survey (2003) and Stone
(2006) found that crime and fear of crime has also impacted on the use of
public transport. In addition, Crime Concern (2002) and Booz Allen Hamilton (2007)
stated that fear of crime is now widely recognized as a constraint to use
public transport. For instance, research in the UK has acknowledged that an
additional 10.5% of rail trips would be made if people felt safer and secure when
travelling and waiting at stations (Crime Concern, 2002). Pickpocketing, bag
snatching, stabbings, assaults, and rape are the most common types of crime
experienced by the passengers. These incidents had all taken place near or at
public transport location such as train stations, bus stops, taxi stands, or modal
interchanges, as well as in the public transport itself (Page et al, 2001).
Hence, some people avoid using public transport due to undesirable areas
of public transport such as stop, subway, or station (Stopher, Spear and
Sucher, 1974).

According to Wallace et al. (1999) the mode choice also can be
influenced by the design characteristics of a transport setting. People are normally
fear of places where they do not have a clear line of sight of their
surroundings. For example, when they may feel trapped with no possibilities to
escape as well as when there are many corners or other objects behind which people
can hide. A study by Wilson & Kelling (1982) and Zelinka & Brennan (2001)
found that tunnels, underpasses, and dark underground stations are usually more
feared than open public transport facilities. Plus, various studies on the
perceptions of passengers in public transport have revealed that a number of
issues related to passengers’ risk perception about personal security. Fear of
crime in public transport in certain social groups is more obvious than others
(Department of Transport, 2002). The study found that gender is the most important
factor related to fear about victimization when using public transport services.

Ever since the issue of women and transport become the highlight in
public transport industry, gender has played vital role in influencing mode
choice (Rosenbloom, 1978; Giuliano, 1983). Fear of victimization and crime is well-known
among women as safety and security in public transport disproportionately
affect women. A study by Loukaitou-Sideris (2008), Schulz and Gilbert (2000)
found that one of the well-known reasons women shift their mode choice is
because of fear of using public transport. Moreover, Gordon and Riger (1989) stated
that women are much more fearful of crime at public transport setting than men.
This is because women  are  often 
subject  to  unwanted 
sexual  contact  in 
public  transport. For instance, a
survey by Tokyo Metropolitan Policy and East Japan Railway Company (2010) found
that two-thirds of female passengers had been groped on trains. According to
Root et al. (2000) 53% of the woman in the UK felt unsafe waiting on a public
transport setting such as railway platform in the night and 10% in the day.
Furthermore, it was found that public transport user feel more unsafe walking to or waiting for the public transport
unaccompanied during the day
and this number increased for night time (Department for Transport in the UK,
1997). Therefore, Cozens et al., (2004) has concluded that safety has a
positive relationship with mode choice decisions.



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