Raw for billions of people and one of

Raw materials used in this experimental work are:

•     
Natural fiber (Bagasse and Rice Straw).

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•     
Epoxy resin.

•     
Hardener for Epoxy.

•     
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Alkaline
solution.

5.1
BAGASSE

Bagasse
is main use as a burning raw materialin the sugar cane mill furnaces. The low
caloricpower of bagasse makes this a low efficiencyprocess. Also the sugar cane
mill managementencounters problems regarding regulations of”clean air” from the
environmental protectionagency, due to the quality of the smoke releasedin the
atmosphere. Present in 85% of bagasseproduction is burnt. Even so, there is an
excess ofbagasse.

                                      Fig 5.1
Bagasse                       

Usually
this excess is deposited on emptyfields altering the landscape. Approximately
9%of bagasse is use in alcohol (ethanol) production.Ethanol is not just a good
replacement for the fossilfuels, but it is also an environmentally friendly
fuel.Apart from this, ethanol is a veryversatilechemical raw material from
which a variety of chemicalscan be produced but again, due to the low level of
sucrose left in bagasse, the efficiency of the ethanolproduction is quite low.
With increasing emphasison fuel efficiency, natural fibers such as bagassebased
compositesenjoy wider applications inautomobiles and railway coaches &
buses forpublic transportsystem.

 Different volume fraction by weight of bagasse
fiber hasbeen mixed with matrix material and specimenwere prepared.
Thecomposition for the bagasse 1 isas follows

5.1.1
Composition

CONTENTS

PERCENTAGE

Cellulose

46%

Hemicelluloses

24.5%

Lignin

19.95%

Fats and waxes

3.5%

Ash

2.4%

Silica

2%

Other elements

1.7%

Table
5.1 1

 

 

 

 

5.2
RICE STRAW

Rice
is a primary source of food for billions of people and one of the major crops
in the world. It covers around 1% of the earth’s surface. Statistics show that,
during the period of 2010–2013, the average annual global production of rice
was 750 million metric tons with Asia region alone producing over 90% of the
total global rice production3.Rice Straw is an inexpensive
byproduct of rice processing and is separated from rice grain during the rice
milling process.

 

Fig
5.2

It
is reported that, for every ton of rice produced, about 0.23 tons of Rice straw
is formed. Rice milling is one of the most important industries in countries
such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Bangladesh. The incineration of
Rice straw is discouraged, which in turn produces ash, fumes, and toxic gases,
leading to serious air pollution. Moreover, silica is intrinsic to Rice straw
and has been successfully used to enhance the mechanical properties of
composites. In the paddy plants of Malaysia, with a land area of approximately
680,000 hectares, a total of 840,000 tons of Rice straw is produced every year.
The composition of rice straw 6is as follows

 

5.2.1
Composition

CONTENTS

PERCENTAGE

Cellulose

36-43%

Hemicelluloses

26-27%

Lignin

6.3-12.3%

Ash

12-13%

Table
5.2 6

 

5.3
EPOXY

          The large family of epoxy resins represents some of the
highest performance resins of those available at this time. Epoxies generally
out-perform most other resin types in terms of mechanical properties and
resistance to environmental degradation, which leads to their almost exclusive
use in aircraft components. As a laminating resin their increased adhesive
properties and resistance to water degradation make these resins ideal for use
in applications such as boat building. Here epoxies are widely used as a
primary construction material for high-performance boats or as a secondary
application to sheath a hull or replace water-degraded polyester resins and gel
coats.

          The term ‘epoxy’ refers to a chemical group consisting of
an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms that are already bonded in some way.
The simplest epoxy is a three-member ring structure known by the term
‘alpha-epoxy’ or ‘1,2-epoxy’. The idealised chemical structure is shown in the
figure below and is the most easily identified characteristic of any more
complex epoxy molecule.The  chemical
formula for epoxy10  is

 Fig 5.4 Epoxy
chemical formulaFig 5.3 Epoxy

 

5.4
EPOXY HARDENER

          A hardener is a component of certain types of mixtures i.e.
amines, phenols. In some mixtures a hardener is used simply to increase the
resilience of the mixture once it sets. In other mixtures a hardener is used as
a curing component. A hardener can be either a reactant or a catalyst in the
chemical reaction that occurs during the mixing process. It is mixed with Epoxy
by the ratio of 1:10.

 

5.5
SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NaOH)
          Itis a highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize
acids and make sodium salts. It is used for Alkali treatment of fibers.  It removes the unwanted soluble cellulose, hemi cellulose, pectin, lignin,
etc.