The concept of motivation emerged after a thorough scholarly investigation about the forces that drove people to perform particular actions.
Intrinsic motivation is the implementation of an assignment because of inbuilt contentment from the action rather than some other results. Ryan and Deci (2000, p.56) show how intrinsic motivation correlates to the natural inclination of individuals towards knowledge and adaptation. They also show how people express it only under specifiable conditions. Extrinsic motivation is whenever an activity is performed to achieve some separable outcomes (Ryan, & Deci, 2000, p.60). In extrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards are provided, which are thought to be the motivating factor, an example of which is the remuneration or presents for work done.
Intrinsic rewards include personal satisfaction in carrying and completion of a task. Ryan and Deci (2000, p.58) point out how extrinsic rewards such as threats and deadlines interferes with intrinsic inspiration. It has long been known that those who set goals end up being more successful at a given task compared to those without any goals. Many personalities exist, and so do the methods of classifying them.
An example is a classification by Marston (1979, p.36) who grouped people based on their active and passive trends depending on their view of the environment. Any dominant personality influences a person’s goal setting. Each personality tends to set different goals. People who are driven and supremely determined know what they want to attain.
They end up setting exceedingly high goals. Some personalities involve working on a task as a whole. This category ends up setting remarkably low goals, which change often. An example of this personality is the ‘High I’ personality according to Marston (1979, p.
37). There exist a positive correlation between power and leadership. Even though a person can exert power without being a leader, it is hard to be a leader without power. In an organization, the achievement of individual, team, and organizational goals requires that leaders exercise their powers.
Leadership therefore may be effectively defined as the practice of using power as a bridge to getting social influence. Leaders should be able to control their supporters to achieve a better performance. This requires them to be endowed with power. There is a notable relationship between power and leadership in that “leaders at a higher level in an organization rate themselves as more powerful at work compared to those at a lower organizational hierarchy” (Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn, 1982, p.
445). They also view themselves as better leaders, as they are able to exercise more powers on their employees and workers in general. Difficult personality types provide a challenge in the interaction and coexistence of different people. Examples of difficult personality types include aggressors and egoists. Aggressors tend to be hostile and intimidating towards other people.
They can be a challenge to deal with. Bullies are a superb example of aggressors (Smokowski, & Kopasz, 2005, p.27) who can be dealt with by psychological counseling after establishing those at risk of the personality. Egoists pretend to know much about a subject. They feel superior to others based on their facts on a particular matter. A way of dealing with egoists is by appreciating their knowledge and satisfying their urge for attention while getting them involved in constructive activities such as group work (Engleberg, & Wynn, 2010, p.
106). They can be dealt with positively by encouraging them to participate more in a group work besides highlighting the need for them to appreciate the input of others.
Engleberg, I., & Wynn, D. (2010). Working in Groups. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Marston, W. (1979). Emotions of Normal People. Minneapolis: Persona Press. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000).
Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum. Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, J., & Osborn, R. (1982). Managing Organizational Behavior.
New York: Wiley. Smokowski, P., & Kopasz, K. (2005). Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies. Children and Schools, 27(1), 101-109.