People everywhere commonly face challenges infollowing, addressing and adjusting to changes in social norms and culture intoday’s society. What individuals may refer to as ordinary human behavior inone society can surprisingly be seen as distasteful in another. One of the mostcontroversial issues facing society today is the topic of homosexuality.
Homosexuality,as both a phenomenon and behavior, has existed throughout the history of humansocieties. Nearly 18 percent of hate crimes committed in 2015 weremotivated by sexual-orientation disapproval, 62 percent of those targeting gaymen. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increasein effort to normalize public acceptance of homosexuality, as well as same-sexmarriage. Western civilization has come a long way from burning homosexuals atthe stake in the middles ages, to legislation against homosexual hate crimes. Differentpeople have formulated their own opinions on whether or not this particularlifestyle is right or wrong. These opinions fluctuate nationwide and are allinfluenced by various variables. With this, it is important to explore thevarious views and attributes in relations to homosexual acceptance due to itssocial relevance in today’s society.
Out of all possible attributes, Reviewof Literature Thispaper explores three published articles that report on results from researchconducted to depict the impact of age, sex, and strength of religious faith onattitudes towards sexuality from a functionalist perspective. First, Adamczykand Pitt (2009) hypothesize that more religious people will have moredisapproving attitudes about homosexuality than less religious people. In orderto dissect both the macro and micro effect of religion and culture, data was obtainedfrom the World Value Surveys. The WVS was designed to assist in thecross-national comparison of values and norms based on a variety of topics inorder to monitor changes in values and attitudes across the world. The crucial variable is homosexual acceptance,which is measured by the outcome of the question: whether homosexuality canalways be justified, never be justified, or something in between. Results variedfrom (1) always wrong to (10) always right. With the use reverse coding, thegreater numbers specified higher disapproval.
Ultimately shown through thesurvey, personal religiosity in countries characterized by a stronger survivalorientation does not have much of an effect on attitudes about homosexuality.However, the findings also expressed that when cultural importance within countries shifts to self-expression, secular normsand laws regarding homosexuality become more liberal, providing a greater rolefor religion to influence attitudes about homosexuality.. Due to high levels ofself-expression and diversity, personal religious beliefs produce greater resultof fluctuating attitudes regarding homosexuality in the United States and otherdeveloped countries.
Countries characterized on stronger survival orientation,like Zimbabwe, produce lesser results.Second,Andersen and Fetner (2008) also used data from the World Values Surveys wherethey explore different trends in tolerance of homosexuality in Canada and theUnited States from 1981 to 2000. The study focused more on effects of birth cohort.They hypothesized that differing political climate and across country and timeis accountable for the significant differences in cohort opinion ofhomosexuality.
The dependent variable is based on a survey item that askedrespondents to give their opinions on various social and political issues,including homosexuality. The independent variables focused on birthand year cohort. Birth cohort is divided into six separate categories of approximately10 years each: (1) born before 1920, (2) 1920–29, (3) 1930–39, (4) 1940–49, (5)1950–59, and (6) 1960–63.
Gender, education, social class, religion, maritalstatus, and community size were controlled. Due to limitations in the data,education is measured simply as a dichotomous variable defined as high (leftschool after 21 years of age) and low (left before 21). While those youngerthan 30 are more accepting of homosexuals in society than people who are 30 to49, both groups are more tolerable of gays than those 50 and older. This surveyrevealed that younger cohorts are characteristically the most tolerant ofhomosexuality. Also, there was a notable degree of change over time within eachcohort. Change in attitudes within all cohorts suggests that people wereinfluenced by widespread political and cultural change of their time. Furthermore,there has been high rates in growth of homosexual acceptance displayed in each cohort.The amplified tolerance for homosexuals can best be explained by a sequence ofyounger cohorts with more open-minded thinking and intra-cohort attitudinalagreeance.
This inevitably increased the homosexual tolerance of all ages, includingolder cohorts. In 2010, the Millennial generation consisted of Americansbetween the ages of 18 and 29 who were born after 1981 (Pew Research Center2013). Many Millennials have been raised up by non-traditional families and parentingarrangements (Pew Research Center 2013). Ideally, millennials tend to have morelenient and liberal perspectives on social issues in comparison to generationsbefore them, especially regarding civil rights for minority groups (PewResearch Center 2013).
Lastly. Herek (1986) discussed gender roles incorrelation to acceptance. Herek (1986) hypothesized that men are lessacceptant of homosexuality than women are. When asked to report the worstpossible insult that can be said to a man, the majority of men chose homosexualwhile women labeled the word as the second worse insult to man.
This is one ofthe few instances that confirm the intolerance of homosexuality in men comparedto women. Since men gender roles are clearly delineated, it is easy to shun outany behaviors that does not follow suit, i.e. gay men. Men are pushed to suppressany aspect of feminine traits within themselves (Herek.
1986). A meta-analysiswas conducted based on 112 studies that include 53,858 female and 46, 966 malerespondents. As predicted, the results shared a positive correlation. Whichindicates that men hold more of a negative attitude towards homosexuality.Furthermore, the results show that the sexes did not differ when the attitudeobject was a lesbian. Ideally, men view gay men as more problematic then gaywomen (Herek 1986).Hypothesis:Younger (18-30) religious adults are more likely to have a higher acceptancetowards homosexuality that older religious adults (31+).