People values and attitudes across the world. The

 People everywhere commonly face challenges in
following, addressing and adjusting to changes in social norms and culture in
today’s society. What individuals may refer to as ordinary human behavior in
one society can surprisingly be seen as distasteful in another. One of the most
controversial issues facing society today is the topic of homosexuality. Homosexuality,
as both a phenomenon and behavior, has existed throughout the history of human
societies. Nearly 18 percent of hate crimes committed in 2015 were
motivated by sexual-orientation disapproval, 62 percent of those targeting gay
men. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase
in effort to normalize public acceptance of homosexuality, as well as same-sex
marriage. Western civilization has come a long way from burning homosexuals at
the stake in the middles ages, to legislation against homosexual hate crimes. Different
people have formulated their own opinions on whether or not this particular
lifestyle is right or wrong. These opinions fluctuate nationwide and are all
influenced by various variables. With this, it is important to explore the
various views and attributes in relations to homosexual acceptance due to its
social relevance in today’s society. Out of all possible attributes,  

 

Review
of Literature

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This
paper explores three published articles that report on results from research
conducted to depict the impact of age, sex, and strength of religious faith on
attitudes towards sexuality from a functionalist perspective. First, Adamczyk
and Pitt (2009) hypothesize that more religious people will have more
disapproving attitudes about homosexuality than less religious people. In order
to dissect both the macro and micro effect of religion and culture, data was obtained
from the World Value Surveys. The WVS was designed to assist in the
cross-national comparison of values and norms based on a variety of topics in
order to monitor changes in values and attitudes across the world.

 The crucial variable is homosexual acceptance,
which is measured by the outcome of the question: whether homosexuality can
always be justified, never be justified, or something in between. Results varied
from (1) always wrong to (10) always right. With the use reverse coding, the
greater numbers specified higher disapproval. Ultimately shown through the
survey, personal religiosity in countries characterized by a stronger survival
orientation does not have much of an effect on attitudes about homosexuality.
However, the findings also expressed that when 
cultural importance within countries shifts to self-expression, secular norms
and laws regarding homosexuality become more liberal, providing a greater role
for religion to influence attitudes about homosexuality.. Due to high levels of
self-expression and diversity, personal religious beliefs produce greater result
of fluctuating attitudes regarding homosexuality in the United States and other
developed countries. Countries characterized on stronger survival orientation,
like Zimbabwe, produce lesser results.

Second,
Andersen and Fetner (2008) also used data from the World Values Surveys where
they explore different trends in tolerance of homosexuality in Canada and the
United States from 1981 to 2000. The study focused more on effects of birth cohort.
They hypothesized that differing political climate and across country and time
is accountable for the significant differences in cohort opinion of
homosexuality. The dependent variable is based on a survey item that asked
respondents to give their opinions on various social and political issues,
including homosexuality. The independent variables focused on birth
and year cohort. Birth cohort is divided into six separate categories of approximately
10 years each: (1) born before 1920, (2) 1920–29, (3) 1930–39, (4) 1940–49, (5)
1950–59, and (6) 1960–63. Gender, education, social class, religion, marital
status, and community size were controlled. Due to limitations in the data,
education is measured simply as a dichotomous variable defined as high (left
school after 21 years of age) and low (left before 21). While those younger
than 30 are more accepting of homosexuals in society than people who are 30 to
49, both groups are more tolerable of gays than those 50 and older. This survey
revealed that younger cohorts are characteristically the most tolerant of
homosexuality. Also, there was a notable degree of change over time within each
cohort. Change in attitudes within all cohorts suggests that people were
influenced by widespread political and cultural change of their time.

Furthermore,
there has been high rates in growth of homosexual acceptance displayed in each cohort.
The amplified tolerance for homosexuals can best be explained by a sequence of
younger cohorts with more open-minded thinking and intra-cohort attitudinal
agreeance. This inevitably increased the homosexual tolerance of all ages, including
older cohorts. In 2010, the Millennial generation consisted of Americans
between the ages of 18 and 29 who were born after 1981 (Pew Research Center
2013). Many Millennials have been raised up by non-traditional families and parenting
arrangements (Pew Research Center 2013). Ideally, millennials tend to have more
lenient and liberal perspectives on social issues in comparison to generations
before them, especially regarding civil rights for minority groups (Pew
Research Center 2013).

Lastly. Herek (1986) discussed gender roles in
correlation to acceptance. Herek (1986) hypothesized that men are less
acceptant of homosexuality than women are. When asked to report the worst
possible insult that can be said to a man, the majority of men chose homosexual
while women labeled the word as the second worse insult to man. This is one of
the few instances that confirm the intolerance of homosexuality in men compared
to women. Since men gender roles are clearly delineated, it is easy to shun out
any behaviors that does not follow suit, i.e. gay men. Men are pushed to suppress
any aspect of feminine traits within themselves (Herek. 1986). A meta-analysis
was conducted based on 112 studies that include 53,858 female and 46, 966 male
respondents. As predicted, the results shared a positive correlation. Which
indicates that men hold more of a negative attitude towards homosexuality.
Furthermore, the results show that the sexes did not differ when the attitude
object was a lesbian. Ideally, men view gay men as more problematic then gay
women (Herek 1986).

Hypothesis:
Younger (18-30) religious adults are more likely to have a higher acceptance
towards homosexuality that older religious adults (31+).