Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
School of Petroleum Management
A Report on
Hyperloop Transportation Industry
Prepared as a part of the requirements for
the subject of
Term II Project
MBA, Trimester – II
SR. Name of
student Enrollment No.
1. Akshay Dave 20175004
2. Devisha Vaid 20175009
3. Harshita Salecha 20175012
4. Jay Modi 20175025
5. Madhur Falodia 20175025
6. Sandipsinh Jadav 20175048
Hyperloop, a transonic rapid tube transport system, capable of reaching speeds
700 mph in a
low-pressure vacuum is becoming a reality thanks to Elon Musk and SpaceX. Now
hailed as the 5th means of transportation behind planes, trains, ships and cars,
Hyperloop will change the way we move from city to city. With cities becoming
more crowded, the need for high-speed energy efficient transportation has arisen.
High-speed bullet trains have reached their limits due to friction,
aerodynamics, and economics. The Hyperloop concept proposes a mode of
transportation that is safer, cheaper, and faster than other modes of ground
technological and scientific aspect of Hyperloop Transportation Industry.
will be done under the guidance of Dr. Akash Patel, SPM, PDPU. Under his
the students hope to learn about the industries through self-learning methods.
would like to express our heartiest thanks and respect to all those who
provided us immense help and guidance during our research.
like to thank our Project Mentor Dr. Akash Patel for providing
a vision about the project.
We are also
grateful to respected program chair Dr. Narayan Baser for giving us the
Last but not the least we would like
to mention here that we are greatly indebted to each and everybody who has been
associated with our research project at any stage but whose name does not find
a place in this acknowledgement.
With Sincere Regards,
AKSHAY DAVE (20175004)
DEVISHA VAID (20175009)
HARSHITA SALECHA (20175012)
JAY MODI (20175016)
MADHUR FALODIA (20175025)
SANDIPSINGH JADAV (20175048)
Research Process adopted
For the purpose of our research we have adopted Secondary research
Secondary Research is a common research method, it involves using
information that others have gathered through primary research. This technique
is also known as Desk Research.
This technique is performed in order to:
§ Assess easy, low-cost and quick knowledge
§ Clarify the research question
§ Help align the focus of primary research in a larger scale and can also
help to identify the answer and
§ Rule out potentially irrelevant project proposals (ex. The proposed work
may have already been carried out).
Table of Contents
1 Introduction. 3
1.2 About Tesla. 4
1.3 About SpaceX. 4
2 Hyperloop. 5
2.1 Origins. 5
the need?. 5
is Hyperloop?. 6
is developing first Hyperloop?. 6
3.1 About. 7
will the first tracks be built?. 7
under consideration. 7
3.4 Initial design
4 Comparison of
Transportation Facilities with Hyperloop. 9
5 FUTURE PROSPECTS OF Hyperloop. 9
6 Challenges. 11
6.1 Why should society be
investing time and money in an untried technology when we could be investing
in existing modes of transportation and more proven technologies like
high-speed rail?. 11
6.2 What about windows?. 12
7 Conclusion. 12
8 References. 12
The transportation industry is responsible for moving people, animals,
and goods from one location to another, whether by land, air, or sea. This
large industry includes a wide variety of organizations, such as travel
airlines, railways, and cruise lines, municipal transportation companies,
freight railways, cargo trucking, and air and express delivery services. Over the centuries,
developments in transportation have changed how we live and work.
In the early days,
man used horses, mules, and other animals to travel to different locations and
to transport goods. Man-made boats and ships were used to travel along coastal
waterways and across oceans for exploration and trade. Most people settled in
areas nearest to the coasts because road travel was difficult and often
dangerous at the time. As far back as the 1600s, water transportation was used
to ship agricultural products to different ports. In the 1800s, railroads were
built throughout the United States, resulting in more areas of the country
being developed and populated, and even more goods from around the country
delivered to these areas. The transportation industry evolved further in the
1900s, with the introduction of the automobile and the airplane.
(formerly Tesla Motors) is an American automaker, energy storage, and solar
panel manufacturing company based in Palo Alto, California.
Tesla was founded
in 2003 by a group of engineers who wanted to prove that people didn’t need to
compromise to drive electric – that electric vehicles can be better, quicker
and more fun to drive than gasoline cars. Today, Tesla builds not only
all-electric vehicles but also infinitely scalable clean energy generation and
storage products. Tesla believes the faster the world stops relying on fossil fuels
and moves towards a zero-emission future, the better.
manufactures and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft. The company was
founded in 2002 to revolutionize space technology, with the ultimate goal of
enabling people to live on other planets.
SpaceX has gained
worldwide attention for a series of historic milestones. It is the only private
company ever to return a spacecraft from low-Earth orbit, which it first
accomplished in December 2010. The company made history again in May 2012 when
its Dragon spacecraft delivered cargo to and from the International Space
Station — a challenging feat previously accomplished only by governments.
development is the Falcon Heavy, which will be the world’s most powerful
rocket. All the while, SpaceX continues to work toward one of its key
goals—developing fully and rapidly reusable rockets, a feat that will transform
space exploration by delivering highly reliable vehicles at radically reduced
We live in an age of unbelievable technological progress — one would
think such changes would have brought about a new age of utopian technology.
Yet in many areas of life, things don’t seem to have changed all that much, and
transportation is a woeful example of this. The roads are still lined with
cars, the skies speckled with airliners. Science fiction foresaw flying cars
and teleporters the 21st century settled for Segway’s.
Dreams never die, however, and the fantasy of futuristic
transportation is very much alive right now as exemplified by a concept called
the Hyperloop. While it’s not as mind-shattering as a teleporter or as fun as a
personal jetpack, the Hyperloop could revolutionize mass transit, shortening
travel times on land and reducing environmental damage.
idea of travelling through a vacuum tube and been around for more than 100
years. In fact, some of the very first underground railways in the UK ran using
an air pressure system. But the current idea for the Hyperloop came from
Elon Musk, the entrepreneur behind PayPal, Tesla and SpaceX in 2012.
at an event in California, he proposed a system of transport that would be
immune to weather, twice the speed of a plane and have a lower power
consumption. He later went on to describe his technology as a cross between a
railgun, Concorde and an air hockey table.
claimed high-speed rail was too expensive and too slow in a paper he released in 2013. For distances of
around 900 miles, a Hyperloop tube would be a more efficient means of
transporting people and transport, he claimed.
an early stage, Hyperloop’s design was made open source. Musk’s own commercial
re-usable rocket venture Space X would have input in researching and
funding the ideas, but would not directly make the first Hyperloop. That would
fall to private investors and entrepreneurs.
means of transportation (road, water, air, and rail) tend to be some mix of
expensive, slow, and environmentally harmful. Road travel is particularly
problematic, given carbon emissions and the fluctuating price of oil. As the
environmental dangers of energy consumption continue to worsen, mass transit
will be crucial in the years to come.
Rail travel is
relatively energy efficient and offers the most environmentally friendly
option, but is too slow and expensive to be massively adopted. At distances
less than 900 miles, supersonic travel is unfeasible, as most of the journey would
be spent ascending and descending (the slowest parts of a flight.) Given these
issues, the Hyperloop aims to make a cost-effective, high speed transportation
system for use at moderate distances.
Hyperloop is a proposed system of transport that would see pods or
containers travel at high speeds through a tube that has been pumped into a
near-vacuum. The train pods would either float using magnetic levitation
technology or float using air caster “skis”, similar to how pucks
travel across an air hockey table. With so little friction in the tunnel, the
pods would be able to travel at immense speeds.
The pod would initially launch using an electric
motor before levitation takes place and the pod can glide at cruising speed in
the low-pressure environment. Tunnels for the Hyperloop would be built either
above or below ground, at only around 3m in diameter, taking up a smaller
ground footprint than traditional rail and road.
Many of the current designs feature autonomous pods
that can be launched on demand as frequently as every 20 seconds. Others
suggest eco-friendly designs, powering the pressure pumps with clean energy
such as solar.
Who is developing first Hyperloop?
There have been several companies looking to create
the first commercial Hyperloop and competitions to develop the technology that
will make the transport system a reality.
Space X has held initial design competitions for
teams to build and test pods which could be used on the Hyperloop. Running
since 2015, there have been more than 1,000 team entries to the competition to
work on system, including a team from the University of Edinburgh which has
reached the finals, to be held in August.
Since the launch of the competition, companies have
joined the race to develop the technology. The main runners include Hyperloop
Transportation Technologies and Hyperloop One.
Hyperloop One is
reinventing transportation by developing the world’s first Hyperloop, an
integrated structure to move passengers and cargo between two points
immediately, safely, efficiently and sustainably. Our team has the world’s
leading experts in engineering, technology and transport project delivery,
working in tandem with global partners and investors to make Hyperloop a
reality, now. Headquartered in Los Angeles, the company is led by CEO Rob Lloyd
and co-founded by Executive Chairman Shervin Pishevar and President of
Engineering Josh Giegel.
Where will the first tracks be built?
There are tests already underway in Nevada from
Hyperloop One, which built a 500m test track to launch its first pod. But the
first Hyperloop may not be built in the US, as initial routes first
suggested by Musk from Los Angeles to San Francisco have failed to take
Much of the demand for Hyperloop development and
testing has come from outside of the US. The Netherlands and Finland in Europe
have expressed interest as becoming the next locations for testing tracks by
Hyperloop One. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are also in the mix, as
Dubai’s DP World group is a major investor in the technology.
Other proposed routes include a Hyperloop that would
cut the time from London to Edinburgh to 50 minutes, while other speculated routes include several US Hyperloop
and an Indian track.
Projects under consideration
The Netherlands, 266
Spain-Morocco, 391 miles
Poland, 415 miles
trip, 1,237 miles
Five proposed routes in
11 other proposed routes
in the US
Brno-Bratislava, 80 miles
Abu Dhabi-Al Ain, 107
Angeles, 380 miles
The Hyperloop concept operates by sending specially designed
“Capsules” or “pods” through a steel tube maintained at a
partial vacuum. In Musk’s original concept, each capsule floats on a 0.02–0.05
in (0.5–1.3 mm) layer of air provided under pressure to air-caster
“skis”, similar to how pucks are suspended in an air hockey
table, while still allowing for speeds that wheels cannot sustain. Hyperloop One’s
technology uses passive
maglev for the same purpose.
Linear induction motors located along the tube would accelerate and
decelerate the capsule to the appropriate speed for each section of the tube
rolling resistance eliminated and air resistance greatly reduced, the
glide for the bulk of the journey. In Musk’s original Hyperloop
concept, an electrically driven inlet fan
air compressor would be placed at the nose of the capsule to
“actively transfer high-pressure air from the front to the rear of the
vessel,” resolving the problem of air pressure building in front of the
vehicle, slowing it down. A fraction of the air is shunted to the skis for
additional pressure, augmenting that gain passively from lift due to their
shape. Hyperloop One’s system does away with the compressor.
In the alpha-level concept, passenger-only pods are to be 7 ft 4
in (2.23 m) in diameter and
projected to reach a top speed of 760 mph (1,220 km/h) to maintain aerodynamic
The design proposes passengers experience a maximum inertial acceleration of
0.5 g, about 2 or 3 times that of a commercial airliner on takeoff and landing.
Fig.1 Initial design concept of
of Transportation Facilities with Hyperloop
Musk claimed that Hyperloop pods will be faster than trains, safer than cars and much less damaging
to the environment than aircraft and it is building an entirely new “fifth
mode” of transport (after planes, trains, cars and boats), complete with its
own unique infrastructure, and it is said to be the most sustainable solution
to our transportation problems.
2. Comparision of modes of transporatation
FUTURE PROSPECTS OF Hyperloop
After years of
uncertainty and skepticism over the future of Hyperloop, one of the companies
pioneering the technology eagerly marched to Washington, D.C. with the vision
of supersonic transportation via a series of airtight tubes.
announced that it has built the U.S.’s first testing site, a 1,640-foot long
full-scale track in the deserts of Nevada, putting the company one step ahead
of its competitors in the race to build Elon Musk’s futuristic transportation
system. Engineers have already begun testing some components, including the
propulsion system and the vacuum.
Much of the demand for Hyperloop development and testing
has come from outside of the US. The Netherlands and Finland in Europe have
expressed interest as becoming the next locations for testing tracks by
Hyperloop One. Dubai and Abu Dhabi are also in the mix, as Dubai’s DP World
group is a major investor in the technology.
Eleven U.S. teams
from Hyperloop One’s Global Challenge met inside a D.C. conference room and
presented their ideas for the futuristic ride. Together they represent 35 metro
areas that could someday be connected by the Hyperloop. Team Nevada proposed a
454-mile route running from Reno to Las Vegas, carrying freight from one of the
country’s largest industrial centers to the state’s most popular city.
Hyperloop (42.3 min) By
Airplane (1H 20 min)
Reno to Las Vegas route
Rob Lloyd, Hyperloop Technologies’s new CEO, says Hyperloop will likely be
approved for freight transport first, which would allow the company to
demonstrate the safety of such an advanced system. It would be capable of
transporting both cargo and human passengers. But while much of the focus has
been on the safety and reliability of the technology—and rightly so—Alan
Berger, a professor of urban design and landscape architecture at MIT, has been
thinking about where and how to design the routes so it benefits the most
By Hyperloop (36.1 min) By
Road (12H 51 min)
one of the proposed routes in Texas would allow commuters to live hundreds of
miles from their office and get to work in just minutes.
Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx, who has long voiced his support for
new transportation technology also spoke on the same. He emphasizes that the
Hyperloop can’t happen without government cooperation. “The government has to
understand that sometimes you regulate when you have mature technology,” he
told the audience. “But sometimes you have to think in terms of creating
outcomes that you want … and letting the innovation reach those outcomes and
creating dialogue with the industry as that happens.”
should society be investing time and money in an untried technology when we
could be investing in existing modes of transportation and more proven
technologies like high-speed rail?
don’t think it’s an either-or proposition. Governments should invest in better
roads, metros, airports and container ports. A growing population and global
economy demands more and better infrastructure. We’ve always considered
Hyperloop a complementary mode of moving people and freight.
don’t know exactly how much the first few Hyperloop
will cost to build and maintain, but one outside auditor estimates we can
deliver better performance for 60% of the cost of high-speed rail. That’s a
start, but it’s not the disruptive improvement we’re aiming to deliver. Our
engineers have ideas to get those costs down even more.
Hyperloop vehicles and tubes have windows? What about emergency exits? How do
you ensure passengers get to the next station? Hyperloop team is working on
these issues right now. Hyperloop not ruling out windows, but Hyperloop
focusing more on the passenger experience inside the vehicle rather than
figuring out how to create apertures in steel tubes. Hyperloop may have
evacuation points along the way, but that also adds cost and complexity to a
system maintaining a near-perfect vacuum. A better solution may be to have
passengers glide to the next station, where they can evacuate safely.
becomes apparent just how dramatically the Hyperloop could change
transportation, road congestion and minimize the carbon footprint globally.
Even without naming any specific cities, it’s apparent that the Hyperloop would
greatly increase the range of options available to those who want to continue
working where they do, but don’t wish to live in the same city, or who want to
live further away without an unrealistic commute time; solving some of the
major housing issues some metropolitan areas are struggling with.”