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Dissociative disorders are disorders that were caused by one or more traumatic episodes (Comer 2014).  Unlike patients suffering from PTSD, people with dissociative disorders commonly show reactions that are dissociative (Comer 2014). 
Our identities are shaped by our memories.  Memory is explained as our “link between our past, present, and future” (Comer 2014). A person suffering from a dissociative disorder struggle to link their memories which makes it difficult for them to know their true identity (Comer 2014).
The three types of dissociative disorders are dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder, and depersonalization-derealization disorder. 
People with dissociative amnesia are unable to remember significant events and information (Comer 2014). The information that is usually unable to be recalled is typically stressful.  These episodes are caused by events that are traumatic (Comer 2014).
There are three forms of amnesia, localized, selective, generalized, and continuous (Comer 2014).  The most common type of dissociative amnesia is localized amnesia.  A person suffering from this loses memory of a disturbing event within a period of time (Comer 2014).  The second most common form of amnesia is selective amnesia, where a person will remember part of an event but not all of the occurrence within a period of time (Comer 2014).  Generalized amnesia is the loss of memory that spans a long period of time, even before an upsetting event (Comer 2014).  A person with continuous amnesia will forget new and ongoing experiences as well as old experiences and events spanning even to a time before the upsetting event (Comer 2014). 
Dissociative people can find themselves in an episode where they have fled to a new area, assumed new personalities, and professions. Episodes can range from either short to long (Comer 2014). 
Those with depersonalization-derealization disorder feel as if they are observing themselves from the outside and are not connected to their mental process (Comer 2014).
Dissociative identity disorder is also known as multiple personality disorder.  This is explained as a person having two or more separate identities (Comer 2014). These identities have their own personalities, traits, behaviors, and memories (Comer 2014).  Subpersonalities are not always known to be aware or conscious of each other (Comer 2014). 
There is usually a dominant subpersonality that assumes the role of primary or “host personality” (Comer 2014). People with multiple personalities can switch from one subpersonality to another suddenly (Comer 2014).  Switching is caused by a stressful event or coaxed through hypnosis (Comer 2014).
Dissociative identity disorder was thought to be rare.  Symptoms can begin in childhood.  A child exhibiting symptoms of dissociative identity disorder would typically use this as a coping method for a particularly stressful and traumatic childhood (Comer 2014).  Many diagnoses are made in adolescence and early adulthood. Women are more commonly afflicted with this disorder than men (Comer 2014).
The text describes that subpersonalities may interact with each other depending on the case and the patient (Comer 2014).  The personalities can interact and have three common relationships known as  a mutually amnestic relationship, where the subpersonalities have no awareness of one another, mutually cognizant patterns, whereas each subpersonality knows about the others.  Lastly, a one-way amnesic relationship is when some subpersonalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not always reciprocal. Co-conscious subpersonalities watch the other sub personalities but do not interact (Comer 2014).
In studying the commonality of dissociative identity disorder, researchers argue that “therapists might be unintentionally producing the disorder by subtly suggesting the existence of other personalities during therapy or by explicitly asking a patient to produce different personalities while under hypnosis.” (Comer 1014). This argument is supported by the fact that many people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder were already in treatment for another “less severe” disorder (Comer 2014).
The text describes how the varying theorists would explain Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Identity disorder pertaining to their specific discipline.
Psychodynamic theorists believe that these dissociative disorders are caused by repression (Comer 2014).  The psychodynamic view dissociative amnesia as a single episode of repression while they view dissociative identity disorder as a “lifetime of repression” (Comer 2014).  The repression is caused by trauma during childhood and the child that experienced traumas would pretend to be another person to disassociate themselves from the experience (Comer 2014).
Behaviorists believe that disassociation is a response that was learned through operant conditioning (Comer 2014).  “People who experience a horrifying event may later find temporary relief when their minds drift to other subjects.” (Comer 2014)  This results is reinforced temporary relief from their anxiety and without consciously knowing, suffered have conditioned themselves to use dissociation as a means of escape from their traumatic experience (Comer 2014).
Research has shown that individuals showed different responses based on the mental state they’re in (Comer 2014).  State dependent learning is learning that becomes associated with the condition which the person was in (Comer 2014). When a person is in a certain state of arousal that mimics the level of arousal of the events, that person will have a higher chance of remembering these events while in that certain state (Comer 2014).  It is argued that individuals with dissociate disorders have rigid and specific links to memories depending on their state of mind (Comer 2014).
Hypnotic amnesia is when people have forgotten facts, events, and even personal identities through self-hypnosis (Comer 2014).  People that self-hypnotize forget unpleasant events (Comer 2014). Dissociative amnesia may occur who have hypnotized themselves into forgetting traumatic events (Comer 2014). 
There are three therapies to treat people with dissociative amnesia- psychodynamic therapy, hypnotic therapy, and drug therapy (Comer 2014).  Psychodynamic therapists help patients bring back repressed experiences (Comer 2014).  Hypnotic therapy is when a therapist hypnotizes the patient to combat possible self-hypnosis (Comer 2014).  Sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital are inhibition-releasing drugs and once injected, may help patients uncover lost memories (Comer 2014).
To treat people suffering from dissociative identity disorder, therapists aim to bond with the different personalities of the patient (Comer 2014).  Other techniques are used to introduce the personalities to one another.  Group therapy, and family therapy are other treatment methods (Comer 2014).
Therapists utilize many of the same approaches in recovering patient’s memories that are used to help patients suffering with dissociative amnesia (comer 2014).  Methods such as psychodynamics therapy, hypnotherapy, and drug treatments (Comer 2014)
Fusion is the last and final goal of therapy (Comer 2014).  Fusion is defined as “final merging of two or more subpersonalities through methods such as psychodynamic approach, supportive, cognitive, and drug therapy” (Comer 2014).

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