NANOTECHNOLOGY IN WATER PURIFICATION Introduction Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials, and devices. This technology has the ability to transform many industries and to be applied in many ways to areas ranging from medicine to manufacturing. Research in nanoscale technologies is growing rapidly worldwide In the case of nanoscale materials, the uncertainties are great because the characteristics of nanoscle materials may be different from those of the larger particles with the same chemical composition.The development of nanotechnology is very fast in the fields such as electronics,medical, biotechnology etc . The aim of presenting this paper is to understand the nanotechnology ,nanoparticles and its application in the treatment of water and wastewater also related application in the environmental engineering. NANOTECHNOLOGY DEFINITION:Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of matter at nanometer-length scales to produce new materials, structures, and devices Technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular range of approximately 1-100 nanometers to create and use structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties. There so many definitions are available in world wide which will vary different field of interest and person focused.
By using the nanoscale materials pollutants from the water and wastewater is removed . NANOSCALE MATERIALS: Instead of steel or aluminum being mined from the ground, new materials will be made from carbon atoms in the form of nanotubes and related structures. A single-walled, carbon nanotube is a strawlike structure with a one-atom-thick wall of carbon atoms. Lighter, stronger and more flexible than steel, carbon nanotubes are believed by many to be the most promising of all nanomaterials.Nanoscale titanium dioxide, for instance, is finding uses in cosmetics, sun-block creams, and self-cleaning windows. And nanoscale silica is being used as filler in a range of products, including dental fillings. The presence of carbon nanotubes today doesn’t prove we’ll one day be able to produce tiny medical devices that enter the body and cure cancer. In the treatment of water and waste water Nanoiron is used.
NanoFe will remediate recalcitrant contaminants in soils and groundwater .In the treatment nonoFe is used with a noble material catalyst. The size of the nanoFe is in nanometre level (10-9 metre). these nano materials have its own significant properties such as surface area,due to the high surface area of these materials . it will attract all the pollutant present near to it and adsorbed over its surface area . the nano particle agglomerates in size and its got stabilized. CONTAMINENTS REMOVED BY THE NANOIRONS:NanoFe™ will remediate recalcitrant contaminants in soils and groundwater The following chemical contominent are removed from the ground water Halogenated aliphatics (PCE, TCE, DCEs, VC) Halogenated aromatics PCBs Nitroaromatics Metals (e.
g. Cr+6) CONTOMINATION OF WATER BY INDUSTRIAL WASTE: There are so many possible way of pollution ground water and river water such as effluent discharge ,leakages of storage tanks,etc The following diagram shows how the industrial waste effluents pollutes the ground water and possible extend of pollution to the surface water.