The effect of amplitude made the frequency of the pendulum longer as the pendulum took more time to complete one cycle. While the time for each trial was made shorter the frequency kept increasing. Conclusion and Evaluation The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects or contribution of the length of the string on the period for the simple pendulum and find out a mathematical relationship between the length and the period.
According to the data taken during the experiment, the period depends on the length of the string. When the length of the string is increased, the value of the period also increases. As it is shown in Graph, the period of the pendulum square and the length of the string are directly proportional to each other. The slope of the graph was 4.1s2 / m, slope max (4.3s2 / m) and slope min (3.0s2 / m). Gravitational acceleration was calculated from the slope of the graph 10.01 m s-2 and if theoretical gravitational acceleration is taken 9.81 m s-2, relative error was found from that formula which was (2.01%)
There were some problems done during the experiment which caused the relative error to increase. Stopwatches were used that do not have uncertainty interval. Reaction time is also other error factor. Flexibility of the string is a problem, non-flexible string was chosen but a change in the length of the string might cause error. There were not any other errors caused by the apparatus. It was stable enough for the experiment. Therefore, there is no need to change the apparatus if this experiment would be done again. However, some other materials could be used such as the computer/multimedia system and a photo gate timer, to measure the period of the pendulum. They would decrease the relative error. Making the experiment in air vacuumed place will decrease the air friction.
The insulation of a house is a crucial part. However, if you live in a building with historic value, good insulation might be hard to achieve. This is the problem of Mr. Smith. Mr. Smith lives in Vreeland on an old farm that is considered a building with historical value. The inside has been changed to make room for four different apartments. Mr. Smith lives in one of these apartments. While living in his apartment Mr. Smith has noticed two things.
First of all, in the winter, the temperature drops immensely at night. Additionally, he has to turn up the heating to an extremely high level just to stay warm in his own home. Secondly, in summer, the temperature inside will increase along with the temperature outside. Basically, the apartment is not very well insulated at all. This means that the speed of which the heat in his apartment transfers is too big.
To solve Mr. Smith’s problem, it is my task to figure out how to improve the insulation of the apartment. In his apartment heat is being transferred through his windows, walls, floor and roof. Mr. Smith’s apartment is situated in a fairly old building. This means that his windows are most likely single-paned windows. These windows are excellent conductors of heat, hence the fact that they are poor insulators. In the wintertime, inadequately insulated windows are to blame for 15-35% of heat loss.
To decrease the transfer of heat through these windows, double or even triple-paned glass is necessary. This will create a sturdier barrier between the outdoor and the indoor so as to keep your house cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Heat passes through windows in the form of radiation. In the summer, the suns rays pass through windows easily. This is radiation. In the winter, the cold passes through radiation as well. Radiation is heat energy transferred in the form of waves or rays. In order to prevent this sort of radiation from ruining your room temperature, double or triple glazed windows are the way to go.
An alternative solution to Mr. Smith’s problem is the insulation of his floor. Approximately 10% of all heat is transferred through the floor. An excessive amount of heat can be lost or gained through the cracks in between floorboards. To avoid this, I would recommend polyfoam floorboard as a thermal insulator. Basically, these insulators will absorb any moisture that might come in through the floor. They will also decrease the rate of heat transfer, through the floor, drastically. Heat is transferred through floors via conduction. The particles in the floor will, depending on the temperature, move faster or slower. This will affect the air and surrounding touching the floor. However, with the polyfoam floorboard this would no longer be a problem for Mr. Smith.
I have now stated two different ways in which Mr. Smith can insulate his apartment properly. Nevertheless, there are still some factors, which we must consider. The first of these that I would like to address are the environmental factors. The particular floor insulation that I have chosen is completely ozone friendly. It uses recycled materials and if you would like to discard it, it would have no effect on the environment. Placing both of the insulators has absolutely no impact on the environment.
Having gotten the environmental issue out of the way, we still need to discuss the economic factor. I’m assuming that, because Mr. Smith lives alone, his apartment is quiet small. To insulate his floor, it would cost about 33 per sheet. This is not so expensive for good insulation in a relatively small apartment. Many people, however, do not have the ability to insulate their homes because they just cannot afford it. This could be a reason why Mr. Smith has not insulated his apartment yet.
Mr. Smith lives in an old traditional-style house. This means that it could be a government declared monument. If this is the case, then the windows would not be able to be insulated. If the government has declared that Mr. Smith lives in a house of historical value, he is not allowed to change anything on the outside. This could become a great problem if he wanted to fully insulate his house.
Another problem, that has not been previously mentioned, is the social problem. Improving the insulation of one’s apartment could be noisy and time consuming. If he has three neighbors, then they could find his newly acquired insulation problematic. This is a social factor that should be taken into consideration. Some people believe that the local authorities should be a part of the insulation of people’s houses. I partially agree with them on this topic. I think that the government should fund for the bare minimum. If, afterwards, the inhabitant would like to make some additionally changes then they should pay for that themselves.
I think that they should do this because it is a necessity for a human being to live in a comfortable temperature in their own house. In conclusion, I think that it is very simple to insulate one’s home. If you know what areas to look for, it can make a drastic difference. In the case of Mr. Smith, I don’t think that he has to worry about any other factors except the fact that his building might have historical value. The insulation of a house is vital and must not be overlooked.