Man’s librarianship thus giving rise to the term

Man’s pursuit for information
has led to the development and accumulation of remarkable volume of
information. This search for knowledge recognizes no restrictions and limits
and is never satisfied. It has continued since the birth of evolution to the present
age. This hard-earned understanding and information is treasured for the whole
mankind and therefore responsible to be well-kept. Through the discovery of
paper man has been able to express this knowledge to others by writing books.
Thousands of manuscripts have been written by the wise men of the previous
times but many of them were ruined due to the lack of proper means of
preservation. With the discovery of printing press, it became at ease to
preserve the knowledge in the arrangement of printed documents. This steered to
the generation of a large amount of books. The need for the maintenance and
distribution of information led to the formation of more and more libraries.

Over the years, many
libraries have sustained learning efforts by providing teaching resources,
information and recommendation services. A additional active technique has been
taken by libraries proposing educational classes or one-to-one teaching
programs. Several libraries have outreach programs intended to meet the needs
of specific groups of people with limited educational skills. 

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An interchange is usually between two or more
associations involving a momentary exchange of resources, while an exchange
will comprise cooperation on a wider scale, to contain exchange of all kinds of
materials, exchange of information (for both staff and reader inquiries), user
access to participating libraries, sharing of bibliographic catalogs, union
lists, and other bibliographic utilities, and supportive training programs of
personnel of participating libraries.

Library cooperation states to a equally useful sharing of
resources recognized by two or more libraries, or, it may be an umbrella term
for a varied scale of collaboration procedures and instruments for libraries.

According to Agbo (2013), from time
immemorial, both terms ‘knowledge and information’, which are central to the
topic of our seminar today have remained the ‘stock in trade’ or better still,
the ‘articles of trade’ in libraries and librarianship. From its earliest, modest
beginning, libraries have, till today, been closely associated with and thus
closely related to both concepts. Hence, knowledge and information have
remained the conscious ‘focus of interest’ of libraries and librarianship thus
giving rise to the term knowledge society which has become a household term
these days. It’s
an identified statement that no library even those in first world countries
could claim comprehensiveness in their collection and this is more so for
libraries in a developing country like the Philippines. Though the yearning to
provide our clienteles with materials for their research needs regardless of a
limited budget has always been the major stimulus that led librarians into
means that could supplement whatever collection they have in their own library.
And so consortium was introduced. Consortia have been in the Philippines even
in the early 1930’s though it was termed differently but the idea was one and
the same, as it is understood in the present year.

The purposes of libraries have been changing over times
becoming more faceted and multifarious. This modern concept of the library
makes it defy the definition given to it in the earlier times. Libraries are
not institutions/building/warehouses/stores etc. of materials, but are agents of
educational, social, economic and political changes or revolutions in the
community and their doors are now open to all who need them. Lehman (2011)

Consortium is now the widespread mode that carries
together librarians and libraries for activities and objectives that cannot be
as successfully undertaken individually. It may be called a “consortium,” a
“network,” an “association,” or a “virtual Library.” It may be informal,
formal, or government-sponsored. In the Philippines it all started as informal
organization of cooperating libraries with a simple purpose of interlibrary
lending. As time passes by it developed and led to the first consortium, the Inter-Institutional
Consortium which was established in 1972.The original members are De La Salle
University-Manila, St. Scholastic’s College, St. Paul College-Manila,
Philippine Christian University, and Philippine Normal University.

        A government-sponsored consortium, on
the other hand, is one that has a prescribed purpose (usually imposed by the
sponsoring government agency), with a geographical coverage, government
funding, government oversight, and permanent staff. The DOST-ESEP Consortium is
an excellent example.

        Today, the willingness and commitment to
cooperate are still measured by the proactive responses of our model consortia
libraries engaged in traditional library borrowing and lending to the issues
and concerns in expediting their ILL (Inter-Library Loan) and DDS (Document
Delivery Services) services. A few of these cooperating institutions also provide
direct borrowing on-site for faculty and students, such as IIC (India
International Centre), IUC (Inter University Center) , and CCAL (Cagayan de Oro
Cooperating Academic Libraries). Because libraries are now able to have a
direct link to the online catalogs of the other libraries, users can easily
identify the location of desired books or journals, and either request an
interlibrary loan or go to the owning library.

        Thanks to the Internet, collaborative
programs now extend far beyond the traditional. Much of the information that is
available on the Internet is free. And even if some are not free, they are
usually low-cost. Once the networking infrastructure is in place, the expense
of electronic information becomes minimal. What this means for cooperating
libraries which use the Internet as their base of operations, is that the
information they are sharing is far less costly than if the same information
were printed and shipped thousands of miles. Equity in terms of library
cooperation should not be a major problem. Each library has its own unique
materials that can be offered to the public domain, and in the context of free
or almost-free.

This study, therefore, is an attempt to evaluate the Management
of Library Leadership Practices among South Manila Educational Consortium in
expanding access and resources of the library among member schools.


often group together in consortia for cooperative resource purchasing and
sharing expertise. The challenge brought about by the new technology like the
use of internet instead of going to the library in the quest for information is
a major concern among libraries of educational institution.   Librarians are made aware of the importance
consortia, which will give interest to students to visit and work on their
researches in the library. This study may be of benefit to the following:

        Students. This study may contribute
greater acquisition and wide source of information. It may also motivate them
to visit more often the libraries and spend more time doing research works that
may help them function effectively as individuals. If students will be exposed
to different library materials and are made to be aware of the library
consortium, learning process becomes more effective and achievement level will
be greatly be affected.

        Teachers. It may give way towards the
modification of existing instructional media being utilized in teaching. It may
help teachers to obtain information on the utilization of audio – visual
materials in enhancing interests among students. This study may be beneficial
to the teachers who will adopt the uses of the library in teaching.

        Librarians. It will keep them abreast
of the latest among libraries especially the sharing of resources and
expertise. It may also help them in improving the library services to make it a
place more interesting and conducive to learning.

        Administrators. It may provide the
basis of information in strengthening the library services offered in schools.
It may serve as an eye opener to make them realize the importance of library
consortium in the upliftment of the program. Administrators can initiate the
implementation of library consortium if proven effective.


        The purpose of this paper
is to build up a theoretical framework to study the SMEC expanding access and
resources of the library among member schools and for facilitating effective
and targeted planning and design of learning environments within the member
schools and environments will be shared.

        The theory that
guides this study is the “Systems
Theory”. In simplest terms, systems theory argues that for the whole system
(organization) to effectively function and produce positive results all its
parts which must be interrelated must work interdependently. Systems theory is
a way of elaborating increasingly complex systems across a continuum that
encompasses the person-in-environment (Anderson, Carter, & Lowe). The
interpretation of this theory is that it advocates for team work among all the
components of the whole system in order to realize a positive change. In this
case, the library of the member school being a subsystem of the university must
make its useful contribution towards the mandate of the larger system South
Manila Educational Consortium (SMEC) that is to provide lifelong education
through distance learning. The Library and faculties/lecturers as subsystems of
a lager system in the name of (SMEC), must actively collaborate in order to
effectively achieve the goal of providing distance education.

In addition, systems thinking which is basically
derived from Systems Theory also
emphasizes on team work in order for any organization to achieve its vision.
Systems thinking is discipline that integrates four other disciplines – shared
vision, personal mastery, mental models and team learning. All these
disciplines are useful when planning and implementing change within an
organization. Systems thinking also builds shared vision. In order to utilize
systems thinking, you need to bring together representatives of all areas
involved as a group. When a group has a shared vision, the group can comprehend
and create images of exactly what the group desires. All participants in the
group can then see other’s point of view and visions. This enables the group to
apply multiple perspectives to a problem. A shared vision also makes all
parties involved feel they are part of the vision and will be more likely to
assist in the implementation of the vision. Library services in this case, are
essential support services that can bring about a successful delivery of
distance education to students.

It is also the
researcher’s view that in order for the role of SMEC in expanding access and
resources of the library among member school to be worthy and credible, the
education delivery system should be improved. This can only be achieved by the
combined efforts of the Library, faculties involved in teaching and the
Directorate of Distance Education (DDE) to design a suitable mode of
supplementary information service and curriculum which should include
information literacy. The researcher’s argument is that DDE and lecturers alone
without the active involvement of other stakeholders such as the library may
not meet all the needs of distance students. The library’s active role in
supplementing the tasks carried out by lecturers, tutors and DDE is key in
helping distance education students to study well. This supplement is needed to
fill up the information gaps that the distance students need for their research
in order to positively shape up their degrees.

1 illustrates a linear nature of the system. There are inputs, outputs, and
outcomes. However, what happens in the system is slightly mysterious, and one
can only quantify the changes by perceiving the outputs in relationship to the
outcomes or goals of the system. Workers can be in contrast or modify the
inputs, together with their own actions, to create a change in the system. The
system occur within a social environment. Thus certain factors in the social
environment disturb the system and its outcomes and outputs. The system also
interfaces with other system or collateral systems. There are hopes on the role
and function of the system to conform to standards within the larger social


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