Some employee may appeals ethnocentrism, ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s native country, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others, has its roots in the dawn of civilizations. Kreitner ; Kinicki (2001, pp. 109). This situation often occurs when company or employee from countries, which is technical advanced, or high GDP, such as German, Japanese, and American, and Japanese companies had the most ethnocentric human resource practices and the most international human resource problem.
But ethnocentrism is bad for business even organization growth, ethnocentric staffing and human resource policies will cause many problems, include higher turnover rate, difficult to recruiting employee, and lawsuit over personnel policies. How to deals with ethnocentrism is the organization through education, greater cross-culture awareness, international experience and conscious effort to value cultural diversity. Societal cultures include high-context and low-context
Managers in multicultural setting needs to know the difference if they are to communicate and interact effectively. “People from high-context cultures rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when perceiving and communicating with another person” while “in low-context cultures, written and spoken words carry the burden of shared meaning. ” (Kreitner ; Kinicki, 2001), high context culture usually in Asia countries, include Japan, China, Korean, etc, while low context culture countries include German, England, Swiss, and so on.
An example is when talking about a contract, when American say “yes”, that means the contract is ok and he/she will sign the contract, but when a Japanese client say “yes”, that doesn’t means he/she will sign the contract, it means he/she will consider the contract later. Individualism versus collectivism Individualistic culture is primary emphasis on personal freedom and choice, the characteristic as “I” and “me”. Collectivist culture emphasis that a personal goal is less important than community goals and interests, the characteristic of collectivist as “we” and “us”.
According to research, found that the highest degree of individualism in Israel, Romania, Nigeria, Canada and United States. Countries ranking lowest in individualism thus qualifying as collectivist cultures include Egypt, Mexico, India, China and Japan. (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001) For efficiently productivity, managers should satisfied both employee’s individual goals and organizational goals. Cultural perceptions of Times.
Different cultural people have different perception of times, low context culture, such as USA, German and so on, are tend to run on monochronic time, they feel time is limited and don’t want waste it, they preference for doing something at a time. High context culture tend to run polychronic time, such as Philippine, Mexico, they preference for doing more than one thing at a time because times is flexible and multidimensional. But now technology such as computer, mobile phone allows more people do more than one things at a time. Interpersonal space.
When I have been to Singapore, I was surprised why India Labors always pull their hands when they walk on the street, they are all male, and this action may unacceptable by many others countries. People from high-context cultures were observed standing close when talking to someone, such as when Chinese people talking about business, they like appeals they are very good friend, even brother. While low-context cultures appeared to dictate a greater amount of interpersonal space. Manager in multicultural organization should notice that. Communication.
When managing across culture, the language and how to communication between the local and oversea employee is a real problem. Even same language but different culture has different word perceptions. To solve these problems, there are have three options: (1) stick to their own language, (2) rely in translators, or (3) learn the local language. What organization can do is careful design the job qualification and training program, such as when recruit employee, require employee can speak two or more language, such as English, Japanese, and provide training program to help them.
Organizational culture A good example to express organizational culture is Microsoft, in this organization, all employee are working hard, like their boss – Bill, Gates, and they communication heavily by email, the supervisor don’t care what are you wearing, you eat in the office, you sleep in office, but, you must complete the project, otherwise, you may delay all other departments project. Microsoft is a sample of effective and efficiently.
Reasons why managers fail on foreign assignment Some managers will fail on foreign assignment, the reasons are include: cannot adjust to new physical or cultural surroundings, managers’ spouse cannot adapt to new physical or cultural surroundings, family problem, the manager is emotionally immature, can not cope foreign duties, not technically competent, and the manager lacks the proper motivation for a foreign assignment. (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001) Conclusion:
There are plenty of reasons to pay close attention to corporation culture, strong culture help tie people to the firm by creating a share sense of identity and purpose. A strong culture can help companies attract and retain outstanding people. (Mcfarlin, 2001). Organization and managers need to better understanding how to managing across culture and how to communicate by carefully develop the desired culture form the start (anonymous, 2000) , , implement orientation programs, a lot of training and develop program, company’s policies, and managing diversity.