Linguistic experiences 

Second of all, harmful chemicals have an effective portion of the behavioral causes because the nuclear explosions and radiations are in charge of a huge number of mental retardation (Edgerton, 1979, p.17). Most of the dense metals are poisoning and contributing to a dysfunction in the nervous system and to a mental deficit. In the future, these metals become dangerous when they are incorporated in the body through the environment in a continuous manner. Lead, is an example of heavy metal and this latter is frequently used by children because it is present in paint and beauty products. Similarly, mercury (found in thermometer) affects the brain and has the ability to pass through the placenta to the fetus (Metal toxicity, n.d, p.4).

Third of all, it is known that pregnancy has a particular touch in women and disposes their life to new emotional changes including stress (Stress and prematurity, 2006, p.1). Faced with long periods of stress, the fetus movement will become greater (Kessler. 1965, p.340). Simultaneously, extraordinary stress interferes with the maturation process which leads to mental retardation (Stress and prematurity, 2006, p.1) not straight away but in infancy and adolescence period of the child’s life.

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Actually, the increase in the level of the peptide CRH stops the habitual development of dendrites and alters the growth of nerve cells (Stress inhibit development, 2004, p.1). During this period, prostaglandins are released from CRH hormone produced in the brain. On the other hand, it was noticed that stress will change women’s behavior and direct them to unfavorable substances as cited above (Stress and prematurity, 2006, p.2).

Lastly, sociocultural retardation attacks a wide percentage of people whereas clinical retardation discussed before attacks only one over four of the population (Masland et al, n.d, p.49). From this fact most of the world gives social events lots of importance as factors causing mental retardation (Heiny, 1971, p.244) because this disorder may be a persistent effect in the case of slow intellectual improvement (Masland et al, n.d, p.49).

Actually, psychosocial causes are strongly dependent on social classes and family. Beginning with social classes, it was observed that poverty represents a primary cause of this complicated disease shown mostly in developed countries (Poverty, n.d, p.2). In these areas, there is no adequate nutrition and a low IQ takes place in comparison with people having better economical conditions (Kessler, 1965, p.340).

Eventually lots of research gives evidence being mentally and physically unfit is the result of a lack of nutrition, specifically protein. This insufficient nutrition inhibits growth, the brain and intellectual’s capacities (Masland et al, n.d, p.67-69). That’s why the majority of retarded persons arise from inferior classes with insufficient financial gain and unhealthy housing (Masland at el, n.d, p.50). Immediately following, the family has more of an effective influence on the mental development of the child than poverty (Rutter, 1979, p.2).

Subsequently, Infant is elastic; he is susceptible to learn and develop skills from his entourage. So childhood is a mirror reflecting the person’s experiences which allows researchers to deduce that bad experiences manifest mental retardation (Kessler, 1971, p.345). In the 1972 review it was suggested that per-ceptual and linguistic experiences played the main environmental role in the development of intelligence and that personal mothering (al-though important for other aspects of devel-opment was largely irrelevant for cognitive growth. The role of mothering and of interpersonal relationships can be assessed by examining the intellectual development of children reared in environments which are deviant in these respects (Rutter, 1979, p.2).

Simultaneously, in comparing children arising in their own families with children arising in institutions, society remarks those institutional infants are retarded intellectually whereas the other categories of children are not. In case of disorganized families, unhealthy symptoms occur (Kessler, 1965, p.p 342-345). And most probably large families are susceptible to develop mental disorders. Soon after, studies proved that good relations between family and the child from six months till three years are indispensable to simplify the life of the child and permit him to continue his activities normally (Cumming, 1961, p.p 196-197).

Then, parental attachment deals with successful integration in the society and a healthier development (Rutter, 1979, p.3). In the end, accepting the reality that you have a mental retarded child is hard and painful, since mental retardation is a dramatic condition (Winnepenninck at el, 2003, p.40). On the other hand, it will be better for parents to read books about the illness to understand it more and take some actions to prevent this disaster.

It is important to note that a huge number of children, in Europe, were affected by mental retardation because of the inability of medicine to perceive these causes at the different stages of growth. But now, due to the progress in education and medicine such as prenatal diagnosis, the number of retarded people decreases enormously (Hywood, 1996, p.p 34-35). Finally, the issue is to support and increase the rate of this improvement (Hywood, 1996, p.38) by breaking “residual rules” and trying to get effective help.

References

Carrol, L. (2003, November 4). Alcohol’s Toll on Fetuses: Even worse than thought. The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from New York Times on the web: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C05EEDF1E30F937A35752C1A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all.

Causes and Prevention of Mental Retardation. (2005, May). The Arc. Retrieved July 7, 2008, from http://www.thearc.org/wetcommunity/Document.Doc?8id=/47 .

Chelly, J, Khelfaoui, M, Francis, F, Cherif, B & Bienvenu, T. (2006). Genetics and Patophysiology of Mental Retardation. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 701-713. Retrieved July7, 2008, from expanded academic ASAP database.

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