Lexical Michaela Bade, 2014: 55), these errors are

Lexical errors

Starting from
the empirical research of Maera (Mear, 1984: 67), we can say that lexical
errors are perhaps the most common mistakes that occur in pupils’ speech, so
they need to pay special attention. Because inadequate word selection, that is,
lexical choice can cause a misunderstanding of the context, the analysis of
lexical errors1
represents a crucial problem, as well as the desire for additional research.
Talking about the lexicon in a foreign language classroom, we can say that it
takes perhaps a central role in the learning process, that is, lectures, since
it is a vocabulary, that is, the language of the foreign language and the
ultimate goal of teaching. Thus, Willis (1989: 34) thinks that learning lexicon
in the classroom is always ahead of grammar. Having in mind, therefore,
numerous studies, among which the work of Dusk (1969), which rarely dealt with
this topic, distinguishes four types of lexical errors. It speaks about the
errors in the style (formal / informal), then the wrong word selection (the
similarity of the foreign language to the mother), the mistakes caused by the
similarity in the meaning (trip / journey), and errors caused by the distortion
of the word (solve instead of dissolve) (?arapi?, D 2012: 191).

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Lexical errors
can therefore arise either due to the influence of the mother tongue, so we can
speak about language interference or because of difficulty in mastering the
word (Laufer, 1997). Next, James (James, 1998: 192) classifies lexical errors
to formal and semantic, where formal include: the misapplication of the word
the error in the form of the word3,
the distortion of the word4.
Semantic errors are related to meaningful relationships5
and errors in the selection of collocations6.

According to
Presa and Bade (Diana Presada and Michaela Bade, 2014: 55), these errors are
actually the basic errors that students make, but also, there are those errors
(in the minority) that should be taken into account, which are : spelling
errors, or errors caused by a drop in concentration or fatigue. These are
mistakes caused not by weak adoption of a foreign language, but by uncontrolled
psychological factors.


1 Lexics at the elementary age (as well as at all
other ages) is best understood through the context. We noticed that our
teachers take a very responsible approach to the study of lexical structures,
that is, they do not regard the words as isolated entities, but rather
contextually approach the appropriate translation. We must also point out that
most teachers use visual effects when learning new words (images, photos).

2 Sufiksalni tip (significant / considerate); prefix
type (reserve / preserve); type based on vowels (manual / menial; conservation
type (save / safe) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).

3 Banks pointing out the words of the mother tongue,
which are used in foreign language without any changes (room / sale) (Laki?,
2001: 5); calculi resulting from interference from the mother tongue
(economical situation / economic situation) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).

4 Omitting the graph (interesting / interesting);
unnecessary addition of a dining room / dining room; error in the order of
letters (littel / little), etc. (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).

5 Use of superons instead of
hippies (We have modern equipment in our house / appliances); the use of
hippons instead of superons (The colonels / officers live in the castle); use
of appropriate co-hippons (I think the city has good communication / public
transport such as a lot of buses); using the wrong approximation synonyms
(regretful / penitent). (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).

6 Semantically determined word selection (The city
was grown / developed); syntactically wrong choice (An army has suffered big
losses / heavy losses); Within syntax, we further divide: inadequate form of
word, incomplete word form or syntagm, inappropriate choice of word type (See
Carapic, D. 1998: 195).


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