Lexical errorsStarting fromthe empirical research of Maera (Mear, 1984: 67), we can say that lexicalerrors are perhaps the most common mistakes that occur in pupils’ speech, sothey need to pay special attention. Because inadequate word selection, that is,lexical choice can cause a misunderstanding of the context, the analysis oflexical errors1represents a crucial problem, as well as the desire for additional research.
Talking about the lexicon in a foreign language classroom, we can say that ittakes perhaps a central role in the learning process, that is, lectures, sinceit is a vocabulary, that is, the language of the foreign language and theultimate goal of teaching. Thus, Willis (1989: 34) thinks that learning lexiconin the classroom is always ahead of grammar. Having in mind, therefore,numerous studies, among which the work of Dusk (1969), which rarely dealt withthis topic, distinguishes four types of lexical errors. It speaks about theerrors in the style (formal / informal), then the wrong word selection (thesimilarity of the foreign language to the mother), the mistakes caused by thesimilarity in the meaning (trip / journey), and errors caused by the distortionof the word (solve instead of dissolve) (?arapi?, D 2012: 191).Lexical errorscan therefore arise either due to the influence of the mother tongue, so we canspeak about language interference or because of difficulty in mastering theword (Laufer, 1997). Next, James (James, 1998: 192) classifies lexical errorsto formal and semantic, where formal include: the misapplication of the wordform2,the error in the form of the word3,the distortion of the word4.Semantic errors are related to meaningful relationships5and errors in the selection of collocations6.According toPresa and Bade (Diana Presada and Michaela Bade, 2014: 55), these errors areactually the basic errors that students make, but also, there are those errors(in the minority) that should be taken into account, which are : spellingerrors, or errors caused by a drop in concentration or fatigue.
These aremistakes caused not by weak adoption of a foreign language, but by uncontrolledpsychological factors. 1 Lexics at the elementary age (as well as at allother ages) is best understood through the context. We noticed that ourteachers take a very responsible approach to the study of lexical structures,that is, they do not regard the words as isolated entities, but rathercontextually approach the appropriate translation. We must also point out thatmost teachers use visual effects when learning new words (images, photos).2 Sufiksalni tip (significant / considerate); prefixtype (reserve / preserve); type based on vowels (manual / menial; conservationtype (save / safe) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).3 Banks pointing out the words of the mother tongue,which are used in foreign language without any changes (room / sale) (Laki?,2001: 5); calculi resulting from interference from the mother tongue(economical situation / economic situation) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).
4 Omitting the graph (interesting / interesting);unnecessary addition of a dining room / dining room; error in the order ofletters (littel / little), etc. (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).5 Use of superons instead ofhippies (We have modern equipment in our house / appliances); the use ofhippons instead of superons (The colonels / officers live in the castle); useof appropriate co-hippons (I think the city has good communication / publictransport such as a lot of buses); using the wrong approximation synonyms(regretful / penitent). (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).6 Semantically determined word selection (The citywas grown / developed); syntactically wrong choice (An army has suffered biglosses / heavy losses); Within syntax, we further divide: inadequate form ofword, incomplete word form or syntagm, inappropriate choice of word type (SeeCarapic, D.