Jordan is considered one of the sun-belt countries,which possesses high solar radiation on its horizontal surface.
This workpresents the energy output of photovoltaic (PV) modulefor three sites in Jordan; these three sites are Irbid (latitude 32° N andlongitude 35° E)in the northern Jordan, Amman (latitude 32° N and longitude 36° E) in the central Jordan, and Aqaba (latitude 29° N and longitude 35° E) in south Jordan. The paper analyses the solarradiation data and ambient temperature to compare the PV energy output at thesesites. The analysis showed that the Aqaba is the bestlocation for PV energy production with respect to other locations. It isfound that the annual energy production for a module with 340 W capacities is 502kWh. Keywords: Photovoltaic;Solar radiation; Energy output; sun-belt countries Abbreviations FF Fill factor G Solar irradiance (W/m2) Ipm Current at maximum power (A) ISG Short circuit current (A) NOTC Normal operating cell temperature (C) Pmax Power at maximum power point (W) Ta Ambient temperature (C) Tc Cell operating temperature (C) Vac Open circuit voltage (V) Vpm Voltage at maximum power (V) 1. IntroductionJordan relies on imported oil from neighboring countries, whichcauses a financial burden on the national economy1, 2. Domestic energy resources, including oil and gas, cover only 3–4%of the country’s energy needs. Jordan spends more than 7.
5% of its nationalincome on the purchase of energy. The levels of energy and electricityconsumption will probably double in 15 years. Jordan accounts an average of15.85×103 ton of emissions, of which CO2 constitutesaround 97%; fossil fuel combustion almost producing 85% by mass of the totalGHG emissions 3. Recently, photovoltaic (PV) systems are being widely used togenerate electricity due to its positive features. These features and otheradvantages make photovoltaic technology as promising one over other generationsystems.
Examples of these features are: PV systems converting the solar radiationinto electricity through a simple solid state device which has lowtemperature,no moving parts in the PV systems, low maintenance cost, pollutionfree, long effective operation life, high reliability and easy to install andoperate 4-11. Production power amount from a PV system depends on the availablesolar energy at the site and the performance of the PV panels. For that, electricitygeneration cost varies from one site to another site. Therefore, for moreelectricity generation and environmental profitable PV panels must be installedat sites where relatively higher solar irradiation intensities are availableand pollution levels are also high. The performance of PV systems at different sites around the worldare studied from many researchers. Kim et al.
12study the performance and present economic analysis for two installedphotovoltaic systems in different locations in Korea. The performance of a gridconnected Photovoltaic is monitored and studied for a long time in order toimprove the PV performance 13-18.Ayompe et al. 19, 20presented the measured performance of a 1.72 kW rooftopphotovoltaic system in Dublin, Ireland. Many studies presented a solution ofthe high energy consumption of the world countries, PV can contributesignificantly to the reduction of the primary, conventional energy supply, aswell as to the reduction of the CO2 emissions21-28.
Several researchers 29-33 compared between the roof-mounted PV system and using a PV systemwithin the boundary of the building site to generate electricity which is lessfavorable because the area outside the building’s footprint could be shaded ordeveloped in the future. Thus, it cannot be guaranteed to provide long-termgeneration. The energy situation in Jordan, presented and discussed theimportance of the increasing role of renewable energy technologies in theenergy mix in Jordan34-41. Badran42has studied different solar power technologies.
He suggested thatthe Jordanian government needs to do more serious steps towards the utilizationof industrial solar energy for power generation applications in arid regions. The studies in the above have discussed the energy situation inJordan and examined the potential of PV energy production at differentlocations. In this study, the PV energy output at three locations in Jordan ispresented. The three locations (Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba) will be studied toestimate the annual energy output per PV module and the reduction in the amountof emitted greenhouse gases. In addition, these estimations are used todetermine the best site of PV power plant in Jordan.2. Locations DataThe three locations in Jordan were investigated inthis paper at the north (Irbid), the center of Jordan (Amman), and south(Aqaba) between (35° E and 36° E) latitude and (29° N and 32° N) Longitude andvarious elevations between 50 and 1120 m. The geographical locations of thesestations are shown in Figure.
1. The global radiation which is a combination ofdirect, diffuse, and albedo radiation 43-46 for the three sites is listed in table. 1 47; these data present the monthly average globalradiation on a square meter per day. The data have been recorded for a periodof more than 10 years. According to the data obtained from these sites, thesummation of global solar radiation available over the year in Irbid, Amman andAqaba is 1876, 1967 and 2151 kWh/m2respectively. In addition, themonthly average ambient temperature in the daylight of the three sites islisted in table.
1 Figure. 1 Distributionof three locations, Pre-selected, over Jordan48.Table. 1 Monthly average global radiation and ambienttemperature Month Monthly average global radiation (kWh/m2/day) Average Daily Sunshine Hours Monthly average ambient temperature (°C) A B C A B C A B C January 5.4 5.5 5.
9 6 7 8 9 8 14 February 6.7 6.8 7.
1 6 7 8 10 9 16 March 8.4 8.5 8.7 7 8 9 12 14 19 April 10 10 10 8 10 9 16 17 24 May 11 11 11 9 11 11 20 23 27 June 11.4 11.3 11.3 11 13 12 22 25 31 July 11.1 11.
1 11.1 11 13 12 24 26 33 August 10.3 10.
4 10.4 11 13 12 23 25 33 September 8.9 8.9 9.1 10 11 11 23 26 31 October 7.
1 7.3 7.6 9 10 10 21 23 26 November 5.7 5.7 6.1 7 8 9 14 16 20 December 5 5.1 5.5 5 6 7 9 12 15 3.
Estimation Energy Production The PV system electricity generator is the PV module,which is consists of a number of solar cells and these cells are connected in differentways on a panel. The area of solar cell is of the order of few square centimeters49. The efficiency of the PV module is the mainparameter in the system which represents the ratio between the PV power outputand the global solar radiation input. Nowadays, PV modules with 20 % efficiencyare available in the market with reasonable cost 50-52. In this work, a SUNIVA (OPT340-72-4-100) PV module ischosen which has a module efficiency of 17.43 %.
This module has a maximumpower output of about 340 W when the global radiation is 1,000 W/m2and with area about 2 m253. Table. 2 shows the manufacturing specifications ofthe PV module 53 which are under standard laboratory test conditions(air mass 1.
5, irradiance = 1,000 W/m2, cell temperature = 25 °C). Table 2 Specifications of the PV module Characteristics Value Units Maximum power (Pmax) 340 W Maximum power voltage (Vpm) 37.8 V Maximum power current (Ipm) 8.99 A Open circuit voltage (Voc) 46 V Short circuit current (Isc) 9.78 A Module Dimensions 1970 x 990 mm Temperature coefficient of Pmax -0.420 %/°C Temperature coefficient of Voc 0.
335 V/°C Temperature coefficient of lsc -0.047 mA/°C Operating Module Temperature -40 To 85 °C The maximum power output (Pmax) of the PVmodule under the site weather conditions can be estimated by the followingequation 54. (1) Where Isc is short circuit current, Vocis open circuit voltage, and FF is fill factor.The fill factor is the ratio of the maximum actualpower output to the theoretical maximum power output. The fill factor is givenas: (2) where Ipm is current at maximum power andVpm is voltage at maximum power. It is clear from the Eq. 1 that the short circuitcurrent is proportional to the irradiance (G) and the open circuit voltage isproportional to the cell temperature (Tc). The practical short circuit currentand practical open circuit voltage at the site are given as 18: (3) (4) The cell temperature (Tc) is determined by (4) where NOCT is normal operating cell temperature(usually between 42 and 46 ?C),and Ta is ambient temperature 18.
The PV power output measurement system layout isshown schematically in Figure. 2. Figure. 2 Measurement system layoutThe system consists of PV module connected to digitalvoltmeter/ammeter device and DC load. The voltmeter/ ammeter device is used tomeasure the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current.
The power of DCload must be equal or greater than the maximum PV power capacity to ensureconsumption of all the PV electricity. The digital weather station is used tomeasure the ambient temperature and solar radiation at the site. Thethermocouples are mounted on the top and bottom surfaces of PV module and insertedbetween the glasses and the solar cell the PV surface to measure the PV celltemperature 55 and taking the average value of the thesetemperatures. The data of voltmeter, ammeter, thermocouples, and weatherstation are collected by data logger and stored in the computer over the year.4. Results4.1 PV Energy OutputPV module energy output depends on the availablesolar radiation at the selected location, ambient temperature at the selectedlocation and the efficiency of PV module. In this investigation, the same PVmodule is used for the three locations.
The main measurement parameters of thePV output are the short circuit current and the open circuit voltage, the shortcircuit current is evaluated by Eq. 3 which is proportional to the availablesolar radiation at the site. Figure.3presents the average short circuit currentfor the three locations during the year, the maximum average short circuitcurrent of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 4.
65, 4.28 and 5.51 A respectively, whilethe minimum average short circuit current are2.03, 2.17 and 2.69 Arespectively. The maximum value of average short circuit current for the three locationsoccurs in June, and the minimum was in December. Figure.
3PV module average short circuit current forthe three locationsEquation. 4 is used to calculate the open circuit voltage.It is clear from the Eq. 4 that the open circuit voltage is affected by thecell temperature at the site, so it should first calculate the cell temperaturethan calculate the open circuit voltage. To calculate the cell temperaturesusing the Eq. 5, it is clear from the Eq. 5 that the cell temperature isaffected directly by ambient temperature, which is presented in Table.
1 forthe three locations. Figure. 4presents the results of the average celltemperature through the year. The maximum cell temperature of Irbid, Amman, andAqaba are 60.6, 63.54 and 70.
53°C, respectively. Figure.5 shows the opencircuit voltage for the three locations through the year. The maximum averageopen circuit voltages of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 45.93, 45.65 and 45.28 V,respectively, and the minimum are 43, 42.
8 and 42.2 V respectively. The maximumvalue of average open circuit voltage is for the three locations occurring inJanuary because the ambient temperature is minimum, and the minimum value ofaverage open circuit voltage for the three sites occurs in July because theambient temperature is maximum. Figure. 4 Average cell temperature of PV module forthe three locations Figure. 5 Average open circuit voltage of PV modulefor the three locations PV module power output under the real site weatherconditions can be estimated by Eq.
1. Figure.6 shows the result of power of thePV. It is found that the maximum power for Irbid, Amman and Aqaba can bereached at 151, 153.33 and 175.16 W respectively. Figure. 6 PV module power output for the threelocationsThe average daily and monthly PV energy outputs perone module and over the year are estimated and presented in Figures.
7 and 8,respectively. It is clear from Figure. 7 that the maximum average daily PVenergy outputs of Irbid, Amman, and Aqaba are 1.66, 2.
02 and 2.10 kWhrespectively, and the minimum are 0.35, 0.45 and 0.
63 kWh respectively. Figure 8shows the monthly PV energy output over a year. The maximum monthly PV energyoutputs of Irbid, Amman and Aqaba are 49.83, 60.88 and 63.06 kWh respectively,and the minimum are 10.58, 13.50 and 19.
17 kWh respectively. Figure. 7 The average daily PV energy output for onemodule Figure.
8 The monthly PV energy output for one module In order to determinethe best energy output location, one has to determine the cumulative energyoutput during the year. Figure 9 shows the total cumulative energy output overthe year for the three considered locations. The total energy outputs permodule for Irbid, Amman and Aqaba are 359.26, 443.11 and 501.
97 kWhrespectively. Fig. 9 The annual PV energy output for one module 5. ConclusionsIn this work, the performance of a PV module isestimated under three location conditions in Jordan. According to these locationsdata, the annual global solar radiation available in Irbid, Amman and Aqaba is1876, 1967 and 2151 kWh/m2 respectively.
The generated electricityper one PV module during the year in Irbid, Amman and Aqaba is 359.3, 443.1 and502.
0 kWh respectively. It can be concluded that the location with thehighest global solar radiation has a best capacity of electrical powergeneration. On other hand, the location with highest global solar radiation isthe best in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases and it is found to be the Aqabalocation among the considered three locations in Jordan.