Introduction international arena. Sources of Data Sources of

Introduction

This chapter
focuses on the methodology adopted in conducting the study. It discusses the
research design, population, target population, sample design, research
instrument, method of data collection, and method of data analysis.

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Study organisation

          The
Ghana Cocoa Marketing Company was established in the year 1961 as a main
subsidiary of the parent company, Ghana Cocoa Board. The company is the world’s
biggest and largest seller and exporter of premium cocoa beans from its origin.
Ghana Cocoa Marketing Company (CMC) through its local and international
affiliations and networks maintain good control over both the domestic supply
chain and the international buying market. The head office of cocoa marketing
company is located in cocoa house, Accra. It has branch offices in Tema, Kumasi
and Takoradi, to facilitate its operations. The company’s main functions
include, among others: the promotion, sale and delivery of Ghana’s Cocoa to
both local cocoa processors and the international traders and processors. They
also support and finance Ghana’s cocoa sector by facilitating the annual
syndicated loan arrangements from lending international banks.

           The Company is committed to innovation in its
business processes and collaborates effectively with stakeholders to meet the
social, economic and environmental challenges of today’s business environment. Cocoa
Marketing Company (Ghana) maintains a superior quality specification of its
products thus requires specific technical skills of its staff in order to keep
them at the forefront of marketing in the international arena.

Sources of Data

          Sources of data for the study are
both primary and secondary. The primary data will be collected from the HR and
junior employees of the company by using simple random sampling method and
purposive sampling method. Primary literature sources are the first occurrence
of a piece of work. They include published sources such as reports and some
central and local government publications, such as White Papers and planning
documents. They also include unpublished manuscripts such as letters, memos,
and committee minutes that may be analysed as data in their own right (Welman,
kruger and mitchell (1994). The primary data will be obtaining by the
administration of questionnaires to the various respondents.

          Secondary data will be gathered from
published and unpublished theoretical literatures and empirical studies. Welman,
et al (1994) argues that secondary literature sources are books and journals
that constitute the subsequent publications of information obtained from
primary literature. These publications are aimed at a wider audience and are
easier to locate than primary literature as they are covered more thoroughly by
the tertiary literature. A secondary data is data which already exist and have
been preserved for further use and studies. These data are got from sources
such as books, journals, internet and textbooks. The secondary sources of data
are very important because they give insight to future researchers on the
subject matter and how to improve upon the earlier findings.

 

Research design

        A research design is essentially a
statement of the inquiry and strategies for collecting the evidences, analysing
the evidences and reporting the findings (Singh, 2006). This study will adopt a descriptive
research design. It is a very valuable tool for assessing opinions and trends.
According to Osuala (2001), descriptive research specifies the nature of a
given phenomena. It is a method which involves observing and describing the
behaviour of a subject without influencing it in any way. The descriptive
research design has various forms including a survey, documentary analysis,
developmental studies; follow up studies, case study and correlation study. The
current study is a survey. The descriptive research design, for that matter the
survey, is appropriate since it will enable the researcher to obtain an
accurate information from a whole population based on samples drawn from the
population.

       
According to Gay (1992), descriptive survey design involves collection
of data to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the
study. The design reports the way things are. This design is deemed appropriate
as an attempt will be made by the researcher to describe the existing situation
by asking the respondents to complete questionnaire in order to obtain data to
draw meaningful conclusion from the studies. A qualitative research allows the
individuals to describe the situations, experiences, or feelings in their own
words. A quantitative approach is used in some instances where, for example,
participants are asked to rate in a scale format in trying to establish or to
determine how they viewed appraisals. This study will make use of quantitative
approach.

        Fraenkel and Wallen (2000), identify
two difficulties associated with the design. They include the difficulty of
ensuring that items to be responded to are very clear, getting respondents to
respond to the items thoughtfully and honestly, and the difficulty in getting
sufficient number of questionnaires completed and returned. In spite of the
difficulties, the major advantage of this design is that it has the potential
of providing a lot of information obtained from a large sample of individuals.
The researcher will take the necessary measures such as obtaining the validity
of the instrument and direct instrumentation in order to minimise the
difficulties mentioned above. The design deals with organising, analysing, and
interpreting data before conclusion is drawn.

 

Population and target population

        A population is a group of all items of
interest to a researcher. The population of the study is the staff of Cocoa Marketing
Company (Accra branch). There are ninety-four employees in the company. There
are two categories of staff, namely, senior management and junior staff but the
target population for this study is the junior staffs of the company who are seventy-five
employees. The researcher chose the junior staff because they are the people
who usually complained about the performance appraisal process and also they
are more than the senior management at the company.

 

 

Table 1

The
population of cocoa marketing company (Accra branch) junior staff:

Department

Number of staff

Percentage

Marketing

14

19

Shipping

12

16

Warehousing & port

16

21

Account

10

13

Audit
Security
Administration & HR

7
5
11

9
7
15

Total

75

100

Source: Field Survey, 2017.

Sample and sampling procedure

       
A sample is a set of data drawn from a population. According to Sapsford
and Jupp (1996), a sample is a set of elements selected in some way from a
population. In view of this, a sampling frame was obtained from the Human
Resource Department of Cocoa Marketing Company (Ghana) Accra branch. This frame
constituted a list of the number of all the junior staff of the company. A
sample is draw from all categories of junior staff at the company. Simple
random and stratified sampling techniques will be use among the junior staff in
the company. This will enable the researcher to achieve proper representation
of all categories of junior staff in the company. It also enhanced the
reliability and validity of the study. The stratified sampling technique is adopted
to help increase the representativeness of the study by adequately covering
identified dichotomies of the population such as sex of the junior staff.
Therefore, the various departments of the company is group into various strata
and then simple random sampling approach is employ to select the number of
respondents for the study. The simple random technique will gave the employees
equal chance of being selected. Cocoa marketing company (Ghana) Accra branch is
selected because of its accessibility.

       A
sample size of 63 will be use during the data collection, 63 questionnaires
will be distributed. In order
to avoid biases in the data collection, the simple random sampling will be use
to select junior staff from the various departments. All the respondents will
be junior staff and will be selected randomly from the company.

        Proportional allocation was used to
determine the sample size of the population. The proportional allocation
formula is given as: k = c (Nh)/N

Where;

Nh =Population for each department

N= Total population of junior
staff

k = Number of respondents
from each department/sample size

c = number of questionnaires
distributed

 

 

Table 2:

The
Table below shows how the sample size was determined.

Department

Population

Proportional
Allocation

Sample
size

Percentage

Marketing

14

14/75*63

12

19

Shipping

12

12/75*63

10

16

Warehousing & Port

16

16/75*63

14

22

Account

10

10/75*63

8

13

Audit
Security
Administration & HR

7
5
 
11

7/75*63
 5/75*63
 
11/75*63

6
4
 
9

10
6
 
14

Total

75

 

63

100

Source: Field Survey, 2017.

The
number of respondents from each department (sample size) was based on the total
population from each department. Therefore, the number of questionnaires given
to each department is based on the sample size from each department.

 

 

 

Data collection instrument and method of data collection

        The main research instrument use for
collection of relevant data for the study is the questionnaire. The data will
be collected through a questionnaire (hard copy) which comprises of closed
ended questions. The questionnaire will be adopted because it is easy to use
and interpret. Also, questions on questionnaires are objective with no leading
suggestions to the responses desired (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). This
instrument is found to be appropriate because it offer a great deal of privacy
as well as enough time for the respondents to think through the items before
responding to them. Questionnaires are very good for research work because it
saves time as many respondents can be covered in a short time. The instrument
use is a likert’s (1932) five point scale
–type of
questionnaire where respondents is require to rate statements on attitude
(strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree and strongly agree).

       
Kerlinger (1973) observed that questionnaire is used for collecting data
in educational research because it is very effective for securing factual
information about practices and conclusions and for enquiring into the opinion
and attitude of a subject. The questionnaire will be constructed base on the
purpose of the study and the research question. It will be use to solicit both
general and specific information from the respondents. To facilitate as many
responses as possible, the items will be expressed in simple terms. The
questionnaires will have controlled items that enable the researcher to
identify any consistent responses, and made the editing of the completed questionnaires
easier which will ensure completeness, accuracy, and uniformity.

        The original copy of the questionnaire will
be duplicated and with the help of the Human Resource Department (HRD) of the company
made available for distribution to the respondents within the company. First
and foremost, the researcher will visit the premises of the company to present
the introductory letter to formally introduce her for the administration of the
research instrument. Based on simple random technique the respondents will be
chosen which will give the employees equal chance of being selected and the
stratified sampling technique will help increased the representativeness of the
study by adequately covering identified dichotomies of the population such as
sex of the junior staff. Some days will be allow for the respondents to think
through the items thoroughly before responding to them, after which, the
researcher will visit the company again to collect the completed
questionnaires.

 

Analysis

        After checking the precision of data
entry and making codes for data analysis with the statistical analysis
programme, Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) will be use for processing and
analysing the results. Descriptive statistics consisted of frequency;
percentage, mean, and standard deviation will be use to report information on
all factors or variables including respondent’s personal information. Regarding
the interpretations for variables use on Likert scale; measurement will be use
on the basis of the survey; 5=strongly agree; 4=agree; 3=not sure
(indifferent); 2 = disagree; 1=strongly disagree.

 

Ethical issues

The
study will take into consideration a number of ethical issues. Among others the
researcher ensures that:

·        
Respondents remain anonymous; the identities of the
respondents will be kept secret. It will not be known to the public.

·        
The information provided will be treated as confidential and
used for the purposes of this study only, unless express permission is received
by the company and respondents; and

·        
Participation will be completely voluntary; the respondents
will participate at their own free well.