IntroductionThis chapterfocuses on the methodology adopted in conducting the study. It discusses theresearch design, population, target population, sample design, researchinstrument, method of data collection, and method of data analysis. Study organisation TheGhana Cocoa Marketing Company was established in the year 1961 as a mainsubsidiary of the parent company, Ghana Cocoa Board. The company is the world’sbiggest and largest seller and exporter of premium cocoa beans from its origin.Ghana Cocoa Marketing Company (CMC) through its local and internationalaffiliations and networks maintain good control over both the domestic supplychain and the international buying market.
The head office of cocoa marketingcompany is located in cocoa house, Accra. It has branch offices in Tema, Kumasiand Takoradi, to facilitate its operations. The company’s main functionsinclude, among others: the promotion, sale and delivery of Ghana’s Cocoa toboth local cocoa processors and the international traders and processors. Theyalso support and finance Ghana’s cocoa sector by facilitating the annualsyndicated loan arrangements from lending international banks.
The Company is committed to innovation in itsbusiness processes and collaborates effectively with stakeholders to meet thesocial, economic and environmental challenges of today’s business environment. CocoaMarketing Company (Ghana) maintains a superior quality specification of itsproducts thus requires specific technical skills of its staff in order to keepthem at the forefront of marketing in the international arena.Sources of Data Sources of data for the study areboth primary and secondary. The primary data will be collected from the HR andjunior employees of the company by using simple random sampling method andpurposive sampling method.
Primary literature sources are the first occurrenceof a piece of work. They include published sources such as reports and somecentral and local government publications, such as White Papers and planningdocuments. They also include unpublished manuscripts such as letters, memos,and committee minutes that may be analysed as data in their own right (Welman,kruger and mitchell (1994). The primary data will be obtaining by theadministration of questionnaires to the various respondents. Secondary data will be gathered frompublished and unpublished theoretical literatures and empirical studies. Welman,et al (1994) argues that secondary literature sources are books and journalsthat constitute the subsequent publications of information obtained fromprimary literature. These publications are aimed at a wider audience and areeasier to locate than primary literature as they are covered more thoroughly bythe tertiary literature.
A secondary data is data which already exist and havebeen preserved for further use and studies. These data are got from sourcessuch as books, journals, internet and textbooks. The secondary sources of dataare very important because they give insight to future researchers on thesubject matter and how to improve upon the earlier findings. Research design A research design is essentially astatement of the inquiry and strategies for collecting the evidences, analysingthe evidences and reporting the findings (Singh, 2006). This study will adopt a descriptiveresearch design. It is a very valuable tool for assessing opinions and trends.According to Osuala (2001), descriptive research specifies the nature of agiven phenomena.
It is a method which involves observing and describing thebehaviour of a subject without influencing it in any way. The descriptiveresearch design has various forms including a survey, documentary analysis,developmental studies; follow up studies, case study and correlation study. Thecurrent study is a survey.
The descriptive research design, for that matter thesurvey, is appropriate since it will enable the researcher to obtain anaccurate information from a whole population based on samples drawn from thepopulation. According to Gay (1992), descriptive survey design involves collectionof data to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of thestudy. The design reports the way things are. This design is deemed appropriateas an attempt will be made by the researcher to describe the existing situationby asking the respondents to complete questionnaire in order to obtain data todraw meaningful conclusion from the studies.
A qualitative research allows theindividuals to describe the situations, experiences, or feelings in their ownwords. A quantitative approach is used in some instances where, for example,participants are asked to rate in a scale format in trying to establish or todetermine how they viewed appraisals. This study will make use of quantitativeapproach. Fraenkel and Wallen (2000), identifytwo difficulties associated with the design. They include the difficulty ofensuring that items to be responded to are very clear, getting respondents torespond to the items thoughtfully and honestly, and the difficulty in gettingsufficient number of questionnaires completed and returned.
In spite of thedifficulties, the major advantage of this design is that it has the potentialof providing a lot of information obtained from a large sample of individuals.The researcher will take the necessary measures such as obtaining the validityof the instrument and direct instrumentation in order to minimise thedifficulties mentioned above. The design deals with organising, analysing, andinterpreting data before conclusion is drawn. Population and target population A population is a group of all items ofinterest to a researcher.
The population of the study is the staff of Cocoa MarketingCompany (Accra branch). There are ninety-four employees in the company. Thereare two categories of staff, namely, senior management and junior staff but thetarget population for this study is the junior staffs of the company who are seventy-fiveemployees. The researcher chose the junior staff because they are the peoplewho usually complained about the performance appraisal process and also theyare more than the senior management at the company. Table 1Thepopulation of cocoa marketing company (Accra branch) junior staff: Department Number of staff Percentage Marketing 14 19 Shipping 12 16 Warehousing & port 16 21 Account 10 13 Audit Security Administration & HR 7 5 11 9 7 15 Total 75 100 Source: Field Survey, 2017.Sample and sampling procedure A sample is a set of data drawn from a population. According to Sapsfordand Jupp (1996), a sample is a set of elements selected in some way from apopulation.
In view of this, a sampling frame was obtained from the HumanResource Department of Cocoa Marketing Company (Ghana) Accra branch. This frameconstituted a list of the number of all the junior staff of the company. Asample is draw from all categories of junior staff at the company.
Simplerandom and stratified sampling techniques will be use among the junior staff inthe company. This will enable the researcher to achieve proper representationof all categories of junior staff in the company. It also enhanced thereliability and validity of the study. The stratified sampling technique is adoptedto help increase the representativeness of the study by adequately coveringidentified dichotomies of the population such as sex of the junior staff.Therefore, the various departments of the company is group into various strataand then simple random sampling approach is employ to select the number ofrespondents for the study. The simple random technique will gave the employeesequal chance of being selected.
Cocoa marketing company (Ghana) Accra branch isselected because of its accessibility. Asample size of 63 will be use during the data collection, 63 questionnaireswill be distributed. In orderto avoid biases in the data collection, the simple random sampling will be useto select junior staff from the various departments.
All the respondents willbe junior staff and will be selected randomly from the company. Proportional allocation was used todetermine the sample size of the population. The proportional allocationformula is given as: k = c (Nh)/N Where; Nh =Population for each departmentN= Total population of juniorstaff k = Number of respondentsfrom each department/sample size c = number of questionnairesdistributed Table 2:TheTable below shows how the sample size was determined. Department Population Proportional Allocation Sample size Percentage Marketing 14 14/75*63 12 19 Shipping 12 12/75*63 10 16 Warehousing & Port 16 16/75*63 14 22 Account 10 10/75*63 8 13 Audit Security Administration & HR 7 5 11 7/75*63 5/75*63 11/75*63 6 4 9 10 6 14 Total 75 63 100 Source: Field Survey, 2017.Thenumber of respondents from each department (sample size) was based on the totalpopulation from each department. Therefore, the number of questionnaires givento each department is based on the sample size from each department. Data collection instrument and method of data collection The main research instrument use forcollection of relevant data for the study is the questionnaire. The data willbe collected through a questionnaire (hard copy) which comprises of closedended questions.
The questionnaire will be adopted because it is easy to useand interpret. Also, questions on questionnaires are objective with no leadingsuggestions to the responses desired (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). Thisinstrument is found to be appropriate because it offer a great deal of privacyas well as enough time for the respondents to think through the items beforeresponding to them.
Questionnaires are very good for research work because itsaves time as many respondents can be covered in a short time. The instrumentuse is a likert’s (1932) five point scale–type ofquestionnaire where respondents is require to rate statements on attitude(strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree and strongly agree). Kerlinger (1973) observed that questionnaire is used for collecting datain educational research because it is very effective for securing factualinformation about practices and conclusions and for enquiring into the opinionand attitude of a subject. The questionnaire will be constructed base on thepurpose of the study and the research question. It will be use to solicit bothgeneral and specific information from the respondents. To facilitate as manyresponses as possible, the items will be expressed in simple terms.
Thequestionnaires will have controlled items that enable the researcher toidentify any consistent responses, and made the editing of the completed questionnaireseasier which will ensure completeness, accuracy, and uniformity. The original copy of the questionnaire willbe duplicated and with the help of the Human Resource Department (HRD) of the companymade available for distribution to the respondents within the company. Firstand foremost, the researcher will visit the premises of the company to presentthe introductory letter to formally introduce her for the administration of theresearch instrument. Based on simple random technique the respondents will bechosen which will give the employees equal chance of being selected and thestratified sampling technique will help increased the representativeness of thestudy by adequately covering identified dichotomies of the population such assex of the junior staff. Some days will be allow for the respondents to thinkthrough the items thoroughly before responding to them, after which, theresearcher will visit the company again to collect the completedquestionnaires.
Analysis After checking the precision of dataentry and making codes for data analysis with the statistical analysisprogramme, Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) will be use for processing andanalysing the results. Descriptive statistics consisted of frequency;percentage, mean, and standard deviation will be use to report information onall factors or variables including respondent’s personal information. Regardingthe interpretations for variables use on Likert scale; measurement will be useon the basis of the survey; 5=strongly agree; 4=agree; 3=not sure(indifferent); 2 = disagree; 1=strongly disagree. Ethical issuesThestudy will take into consideration a number of ethical issues.
Among others theresearcher ensures that:· Respondents remain anonymous; the identities of therespondents will be kept secret. It will not be known to the public.· The information provided will be treated as confidential andused for the purposes of this study only, unless express permission is receivedby the company and respondents; and· Participation will be completely voluntary; the respondentswill participate at their own free well.