In this Essay I will addressthe issues that surround the research paper this project seeks to betterunderstand how the understand social expectations. This research paper alignswith the inequalities that still exist, mainly with the expression of Genderwith in subject youth of colour. The issues of race, gender, class and academicsuccess through this ethnographic case study this took place at Texas charterhigh school. I will clearly discuss the issues within the aspects this researchpaper through this including the research methods that had taken place. I willelaborate how successful this is and which ways there are improvements on this.
The way in which this assignment is structured is to clearly identify thetechniques that have been used by the author this is extremely a case for ahigher limit of a word count, although I will pick out main points and ideasthat strike me and further develop this with constructive criticism from thework of the Author. I will elaborate further on methodological approaches thatthis article includes, ethical issues that I have acknowledged by the Author,within the research throughout the school.The paper I will becritiquing Performing the grade: urban Latino youth, gender performance, andacademic success. (Sifuentes, 2015) The main claims madewithin this article is that it portrays an ethnographic case study taken placein a Texas charter high school. A sizable percentage of Latino studentpopulation with there school history faced a significant traumatic time ofnegative social stereotypes within school. As these Latino students were aboveauthority in other words they were very extremely powerless. (Bireda, 2011) recommend “Ferguson suggests thatschool practices, cultural differences, and underlying messages actually setAfrican American boys up for school failure.
Like Earl, they arrive at a pointof refusing to believe that students who look like themselves are capable ofacademic achievement” This shows evidence shows that students of a specificskin colour already have the stigma within them that they do not have theability of academic success. Also, an underlying factor is that if the parentsof the children faced an issue of powerless control within their schoolexperience. This then leads on to the children believing and accepting likewiseas they practically see no other option, because their parents do not knowanymore. Within schools most usually there is a common and general agreement,within this Article there is evidence that most teachers did not work in linewith each other. The teachers were not all working towards the same goal,primarily the success of students should be the main incisive goal for theschool to be a role model for students. Arguments within this article are not clearat all points, reasons for this is usually that for generally a Journal articleto be approved, there is always a word count limit. The sub-headings questionsin this article are “(Re) stratifying students” this Sub-heading brieflyexplains the importance of importance of (Re) stratifying within schools andthe issue, (Sifuentes, 2015) “Given the freeness of the comment andthe indifference expressed from the department chair, I began to question theoverall campus climate and how that, subsequently, impacted studentdevelopment.” This shows that there was a clear imbalance within the schools.
On the other hand, she addresses issue of the “climate” and she regards theschool as problematic and with this it disregards (Re) stratifying “Forexamples, question the value of the study of single events and point out thatis difficult for researchers to cross-check information.” (Bell, 2005) This shows thatResearchers can make the mistake for there articles and so this is unclear toreaders that are viewing the article. The article uses Participant observationthis research method, this clearly links in cohesively with the type ofresearch as this is within a school as you are clearly able to identify thespecific group of students, social relationships and the behaviour during thesituation. This research journal article is anethnographic evidence, Brewer defines Ethnography as (Bell, 2005, p.
14) “The study of peoplein naturally occurring settings or ‘fields’ by methods of data collection whichcapture their social meanings and ordinary activities, involving the researcherparticipating directly in the setting, if not also the activities, in order tocollect data in a systematic manner without meaning being imposed on themexternally. (Brewer 2000:6) This shows that ethnographic researchers use anidea to understand the deeper meaning to the ways and ideas of how cultureworks and the vital role this also entails, there are many ways in whichethnographic is beneficial and useful resource as it allows information to bearticulate and true. As in this situation participants in a sense feelcomfortable that they are in a comfortable environment setting to be able toexpress their thoughts and show true beliefs. (IF OVER THE WORD LIMIT DOCONSIDER TAKING THIS POINT OUT MAYBE NOT ACTUALLY NEEDED) This was explained in(Margaret Diane LeCompte, 2010)”the idea of buildingrapport this requires the researcher to gain the trust of people involved inthe research community.” So, this is intimate involvement means throughout thistime the rapport will build up between the researcher and the participants. Sowithin ‘ethnographic research’ gaining trust is the primary goal often known as’building rapport’.
Although this is not so simple, as participants may have aguard up in this case in the situation of the students as they may notcompletely trust the researcher to tell them all completely. With this research(Sifuentes, 2015) It is not clear whether if studentsrevealed home truth issues that a student was going through what will be therefirst line of contact. This also falls under the line of the ethical and unethicalissues. Which also largely relates to the morals as well as what are the basisand grounds to the confidentiality between the researcher and participants.
The methods used in thisresearch includes the Participant observation, (Sifuentes, 2015) “Participant observation served as theprimary method of collecting data and, to a lesser extent, informal interviewswere used to gather information” These are the list of the methodological methodsused to collect data. The researcher mentions that she had a greater advantagein a sense the fact that she was in the school as a qualified teacher,confidentiality as well as private issues that the schools can not say openly.As a researcher this must of course be very beneficial to have a first-handunderstanding view of the situation and insider answers to the thoughts ofteachers. The idea of the Participant observations was that this was beneficialto the researcher, in this situation the researcher was a teacher at the schoolfor a period teaching History, but within that time the school had been madeaware that the main purpose was for the research to be carried out.
It isimportant to ensure that the school is aware of the research that will betaking place so in the case it was overtly known, and the school agreed tovoluntarily participate with the work. It has been argued that (Spradley, 1980)”By means ofparticipant observation, you will observe the activities of people, thephysical characteristics of the social situation, and what it feels like to bepart of the scene.” Participant observation is important as you gain theopportunity for the first- hand understanding on all that is going on with thestudents and how they are behaving around each other it is important to paycareful close attention to this whilst it takes place as a researcher. Oneissue may be as a researcher it may be difficult to take note and evidence onall going on at the same time because of more than one student so doing thissolely as an individual may be one factor to consider that it is an issue thatmay likely occur. “The aim of my research was to interrogate the students’experience and interpretation of their environment.
I focused my research on GPstudents experience, and chose not to pursue in depth discussion with teachers.Since students lack the access to engage directly with teacher behaviour orsentiment.” (Sifuentes, 2015) The researcher makesthe use of the upfront harsh word ‘interrogate’ for instance as a researcherduring a participant observation it is important that as a researcher all needsof the participants have been met. In this situation it allows the researcherto understand the issues students face and this will become far more helpful andbeneficial. The GP although they were in their normal same environment, they stillclearly expressed the on-going issue of the racism that they are experiencing.During the participant observation the AP students did not have much of animpact and so therefore, although they had an active participation of the conversation.
On the hand this is very beneficial participant observation however, issuessuch limitations of information, students may not completely feel comfortablearound peers. So, this is another issue of time and the limit this entails as aresearcher that must accept this. Earlier debates have discussedfurther the guidelines of Informal interviews. (Fetterman, 2010) “Informal interviews are the mostcommon in ethnographic work.
They seem to be casual conversations, but whereasstructured interviews have an explicit agenda, informal interviews have aspecific but implicit research agenda. The researcher uses formal approaches todiscover the categories of meaning in culture.” The advantages as a ‘fieldworker’ of using this method is the benefits of the rapport built with the groupof individuals and this may lead to good data base for the specific research. Theresearcher engaged with all opportunities to communicate and gain conversationswith students, this ranged from hallways, during lunch times. “Arguably, groupinterview sessions with youth can create a positive environment that enablesthem to speak more freely about experiences if supported by peers (Hooks andMiskovic 2011).
” (Sifuentes, 2015) There is evidence fromthe researcher that group interviews were essentially effective as students ofsimilar age were comfortable around each other. There was a clear bond betweenstudents and the researcher. (Sifuentes, 2015) “I conducted interviews,private interviews with individual students and teachers on numerous occasion” Thereis no stipulate as in the beginning she mentions that the research question wasto interrogate students. The involvement of teachers is made clear to a readerof this article. “my interest in their campus and learning experiences and theirintrigue with me, and my personal educational background. We began an equitableexchange of information that served to establish a shared sense of trust andrespect for one another.” The students were easily able to convey how they feltwith the researcher and this worked hand in hand as they also had theopportunity to express their views on studies learning experiences. Also answerrelative questions of importance, there is no straightforward evidence on howthe students had been divided, this may be the case that the researcher had receivedprior information of individual students but how were they eventually selected.
Qualitative research, most often requires a focus vital attention so they donot only just hear what participants say another, ‘observation’ is another crucialfactor for the key procedure for the data to be gathered. (Bamberger, 2000) discusses “On the otherhand, qualitative researchers often complain that their findings may bedismissed by survey researchers as not being sufficiently representative or rigorous.Qualitative researchers also express the concern that even after collaborativeresearch efforts, the survey researchers still do not understand the truenature of a complex phenomenon such as poverty.” Qualitative research is notseen as sufficient information to other researchers.
There is growing number onvalue of the integrated approaches although further development is needed andguidelines for the qualitative research.(Melanie Mauthner, 2002) “The importance of ethicsin research, Ethics concerns the mortality of human conduct. In relation tosocial research, it refers to the moral deliberation, choice and accountabilityon the part of researchers throughout the research has grown apace.” This isthe issues that surround ethical issues, that surround the research issues withinthe research paper. These interviews, however are probably the most difficult toconduct appropriately and productively. It has been argued that (Fetterman, 2010) “Issues of ethicsand control emerge from every informal interview.
Informal interviewing feelslike natural dialogue but answers the fieldworker’s often-unasked questions. Aninformal interview is different from a conversation, but it typically mergeswith one, forming a mixture of conversations and embedded questions.” Within thisthe question most frequently the ethical issues include when the researcher isunable to balance all issues when taking the research. “Time and again, I foundmyself heartened by the GP students’ enthusiasm for learning, despite theirimposed expectations of indifference. These young people, especially the urban genderedstudents, actively sought information and advice on a range of subjects” Themain importance of ethics in research is that the promotion of ethical conductresearch and the idea of misconduct. It has been argued that (Adil E. Shamoo, 2009) “Education inresearch ethics can help students develop moral sensitivity (an awareness ofethical issues and concerns), and moral commitment the willingness to do theright thing at a personal cost.
” This shows a deep understanding of importanceand how ethical issues must be taken into consideration. For instance, withthis research it deals with sensitive issues that surround race, gender, academicsuccess. While the researcher may be doing some private interviews, it is possiblethat some students may reveal serious scenarios or a situation they are going throughat the time.
The researcher does not acknowledge the possibilities of studentssaying confidential information, also whether there is a boundary in place towhat must be revealed if the situation is more severe and needs to be addressed,by a higher governor in charge. Reading and analysing thisarticle I can say that I am not completely convinced by the claims that havebeen made as within this there seems to be many breaches and so this makes itto an extent perplexing as from a reader’s perspective. There is not a clear focusunder the issues of (Sifuentes, 2015)”(Re) stratifying”students, it not stated why this had taken place within the school as somesorts of stratification can be seen in a positive light and perspective. Evidenceused by the researcher to claim stratification is that this was because of the historybook the students had been learning from which in turn promoted, inequality forpeople of colour.
The GP and AP students were both segregated this article did notmake this claim clear in any sort of sense. The research during a few occasionswithin the research discusses the significance of “youth of colour” Althoughfor some readers it may in a sense be clear however it is an assumption thatall readers will grasp the idea to understand what this is. In this articlewhen discussing the outcome of the group interviews it is unclear as the researcherjust mainly mentions the ideas of the building rapport. Although this is importantwhile conducting informal and formal interviews. There are not short summariesof what the student’s actual words are most of the statements are them paraphrasedby the researcher. This may lead to confusing claims from a reader’s perspectiveas the only evidence is what the researcher is claiming.
Whilst reading this I donot see a holistic view and the thoughts and minds of the participants. (Sifuentes, 2015) “However, manyLatino youth and other youth of colour, are not so fortunate and will findthemselves amongst the growing numbers of youth colour leaving high school withouta diploma” In this journal article it is part of the conclusion, this is problematicas it does not address the issues of what are the options that can be left tohelp the students with further employment and to disarray from the limits they mayface as students of colour. They should have all the opportunities of academic successjust like the other pupils.In conclusion of this EssayI have discussed the extents to which the ethnographic piece of research, readingthe article has been very insightful however there are large gaps in where theresearcher clearly misses points and so therefore this makes it unclear to understandcoherently.
Understanding informal interviews are mostly common in ethnographicresearch