In from international reactions. 1. The Use of

In 1989, Panama was under the dictatorship rule of
Noriega who was accused by the US government of suppressing democracy and
endangering American nationals in Panama as well as involving in drug
trafficking. Noriega annulled Panama Presidential Election to maintain his
dictatorship. In 1989, the US under George H. W. Bush authorized an invasion of
Panama to topple down Noriega. On December 20, some 9,000 US troops were sent
to Panama in addition to the 12,000 US personnel stationed in Panama. By
December 24, the US captured most of the country, and Noriega was arrested on 3
January 1990 (HISTORY, 1989). The US invasion
of Panama also provoked international reactions. After discussing the issue for
several days, the Security Council voted in December 1989 on a resolution
condemning US military action in Panama and demanded the US to withdraw from
Panama immediately; however, the resolution was vetoed by the United States and
two of its allies, France and UK (Lewis, 1989).

The veto power granted by the UN Charter to the
permanent members of the Security Council has been used by those powerful
states as a means to achieve their political interests of those states. The
United States, one of the permanent members of the UNSC, has used vetoes in
numerous occasions to block the resolutions that would harm its national and
political interests around the world including the protection of its allies from
UN condemnation and the defense of its military interventions in many regions
from international reactions.

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The Use of Force

The adoption of
the UN Charter has classified the use of force as an illegal act against the
international peace and security. In fact, Article 2(4) has clearly prohibited
all members from the use of force against sovereignty and territorial integrity
of other states (UN, 2018a). Nevertheless, the document showcases the extensive
privilege of the Security Council, as the council has the rights to legally
authorize the use of force if the threat to peace and security has been
detected. Regarding this matter, the Article 42 in the Chapter VII of the
Charter provides that if
the Security Council finds the non-military measures to be ineffective or have proven
to be ineffective, it may use all necessary means including the use of force to
maintain the international peace and security (UN, 2018b). Although the measure
is intended to serve as an enforcement mechanism towards the violation of the
principles of the UN Charter, it also provides a loophole for the superpower
like the US to exploit for its own benefits.

The enactment of collective
force through Chapter VII by the US can be seen in the case of Iraq’s invasion
of Kuwait in 1990 to assist its ally for economic interests and maintain its
power in the Persian Gulf. After a series of failed negotiations on the
cancellation of the loans provided by Kuwait to Iraq during the Iraq-Iran War
and on the reduction of the oil production in Kuwait to boost oil price


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