Inthe article “The ‘diaspora’ diaspora”, Brubaker (2005) highlights thatemigrants are theorized as Diasporas. In a further extension he states”diasporas have been seen to result from the migration of borders overpeople, and not simply from that of people over borders. This still leaves avery large residual set of putative ethno cultural or country-defineddiasporas. Theacademic literature includes references to Belarusian, Brazilian, Cambodian,Colombian, Egyptian, English, Estonian, Ethiopian, Gypsy, Hawaiian, Igbo,Iranian, Iraqi, Japanese, Javanese, Kazakh, Latvian, Lithuanian, Mayan, Polish,Romanian, Scottish, Senegalese, Somali, Soviet, Sudanese, Syrian, Tutsi andUkrainian diasporas. Theterm diaspora became a striking one through which spread through the media andon the web, representing a large variety of groups and creativities. ‘Identity’is represented through diaspora and this moves it frombeing a technical ordinary term of philosophy and psychoanalysis to become akey term spreading within humanities and social science and this gave it thepopularity to spread around the globe (Brubaker, 2005, p.
4). In “Diasporaand Transnationalism”, Faist (2010) explains thatdiasporas are large often national or religious groups. These groups tookresidence outside their country homeland as Faist (2010) describes. It is animportant concept in many fields including political and academic research.Diaspora is a “politicized notion” ; it “is an old concept whose uses and meaningshave recently undergone dramatic change” (Faist, 2010, p.
9).Initially,the term referred to the historical knowledge of a certain kind, precisely Jewsand Armenians. In the past 1970s, ‘diaspora’ experienced a real rise inapplications and clarifications, and it can be briefed to three characteristicsaccording to their sub division of older and newer usage. As he states, Thefirst characteristic relates to the causes of migration or dispersal. Oldernotions refer to forced dispersal, and this is rooted in the experience ofJews, but also – more recently – of Palestinians. Newer notions of diasporaoften refer simply to any kind of dispersal, thus including trade diasporassuch as that of the Chinese. The second characteristic links cross-borderexperiences of homeland with destination.
Older notions clearly imply a returnto an (imagined) homeland. (p. 12)In The Arab Diaspora: Voices of an Anguished Scream,Salhi and Netton (2006), illustrate that’Diaspora’ indicates dispersal, scattering, or shatat in Arabic. A greatrecord of dictionaries outline Diaspora as the ‘dispersal of the Jews after theBabylonian and Roman conquests of Palestine’ or, ‘the Jewish communities outsideIsrael'(Salhi & Netton, 2006, p. 2).
Iraqi-Israelis are the most affected in their self-images in terms of’Diaspora’ and ‘Exile’. Anti-Semitism resulted from the growing of Nationalismin Iraq, which led to their great migration from Iraq to Israel in 1950 duringthe inter war era. Forthese migrated Iraqis, Iraq meant ‘homeland’ while Israel meant ‘Diaspora’. InIsrael, they were forced to face discrimination, but these emigrants-writershave retained the feeling of nostalgia for Iraq, and this was obvious in theirwritings in Hebrew and Arabic (p. 8). The feeling of betweenness is very clearin their writings and how they miss their original homeland and the way theydescribe it is so powerful that we feel sympathy towards them.
Inthe United States’ Iraqi-Americans exchange race on two explicit levels, firstlythey adapt the ‘good’ self-controlled citizen, in that; they embrace Europeanideals of civility, individualism, productivity, and capitalism. While in theirhomes, they seek to preserve the family structures and their original goodidentity. Secondly, the immigrant Iraqis exchange their belonging throughinvoking the rhetoric of the United States as a cultural sweet tender vessel,in order to make their place in the US community legitimate (p. 9).KhalidMattawa, the Libyan poet of English expression notes that there are sharedfeatures, which define Diaspora cultural production such as bilingualism or thepresence of the native language and culture in the Diaspora text. He believesthat Postcolonial writing in English generally assumes the existence of anotherlanguage whether the author makes the presence of that shadow language felt ornot.
He believes that the postcolonial writer while using English or French, isnot writing from point zero but he/she is “inscribing on a palimpsest of hisnative language”. (Mattawa, 2000, p. 276) Inthe Arab voicesin Diaspora, Al-Maleh(2009) describes Al Mahjaror the immigrant’s new country (early-twentieth-century émigrés in the USA) themass population of Arab immigrants that was witnessed in the last or pastdecade was the most influential one in encountering so many new writingsincluding anthologies written by Arab-American which was welcomed bypublishers. Manyfactors forced immigrants to leave their original homeland and settle in newcountries including the Palestinians’- Israel, wars which forced them to leavetheir country in 1948, Lebanon civil wars in 1967 and 1973, the Iraqi two Gulfwars and exile. “Whether forced or self-imposed, escaping fromdictatorships – domestic (familial) or political – pursuit of self-bettermentthrough education and decent work, the expanding mobility of capital, andpeople’s desire to seek opportunities to improve their life” resulted inleaving one’s homeland behind (Al-Maleh, 2009,p. 14).