Homeostasis being realised in order to maintain these

Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a constant
internal environment in response to change in the external environment. Homeostasis
involves the maintenance of many different controllable things within the human
body.  This includes; oxygen levels, blood
pressure, carbon dioxide levels, pH, water levels, hormones, body temperature
and glucose levels. All of these things remain at a constant regulated rate
even if there is a change in the external environment to the body. Within the
body all of the body cells and tissues are used for homeostasis. The changes
which occur outside the environment are detected by receptors and when certain
changes are detected the body initiates the appropriate response. A homeostatic
response can either be a behavioural change or physiological changes.

For instance; when our body temperature decreases we put on
extra clothes in order for us to become warmer and increase our body
temperature. This is an example of behavioural response to changes in the
external environment. However, a physiological response to changes in the
environment would be when our blood glucose levels decrease due to the release
of insulin and glucagon being realised in order to maintain these levels.  Glucagon is a hormone formed in the pancreas
which promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. The release
of glucagon in the body will result in the release of glucose in the body’s
cells.

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Homeostasis involves coordination between the nervous and
the endocrine system. The nervous system is divided into two parts; the Central
nervous system; made up of the brain and the spinal cord and the second part of
the nervous system which branches off to the rest of the body. The responses
which are given off by the nervous system are given off quicker but are shorter
than the responses given by the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made
up of glands which play the important role in realising hormones into the body
when they are needed. The body then responds to changes in the external environment
in many different ways. Some examples of homeostasis response would be a change
in the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose levels and a
change in the breathing rate.

When exercising or taking part in a activity the muscles organs
and tissues in the body require more oxygen in order to be able to function
properly and to allow you to sustains this increased level of activity. There
is a greater demand for oxygen in the body and the homeostatic response to this
need is to increase the cardiac output in order to increase the oxygen levels
in the blood. This also means that the body cells are producing more carbon dioxide
which needs to be removed as it is a waste product of the body.

Therefore when your body detects a change in your level of
activity it then causes the heart rate to increase. This is so that your heart
can pump a larger volume of blood, containing oxygen, around the body at a
quicker rate. It also means that the carbon dioxide can be removed via the
blood as it is being produced to keep the cells clean, healthy and able to
function.

Breathing rate is another factor which changes during
exercise as a homeostatic response to changes in activity levels. Breathing
rate also greatly affects the oxygen levels within the body. Oxygen control and
breathing rate is all controlled and regulated by a respiratory control system
which is located in the brain stem. This control system constantly monitors the
level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. It then make a adjustments
to your breathing rate in order to maintain a healthy, constant balance of
oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and creates a state of homeostasis within the
body. When exercising the body has an increased demand for oxygen in order to
allow cells to function correctly. This means that the body makes changes to
the depth and rate of breathing in order to meet these demands. There are
receptors contained in the aorta and the carotia, in the neck. These are
sensitive to chemical changes that may occur in the blood. If they were to
detect a rise in carbon dioxide levels within the blood it would then send
messages to the brain in order for it to make the appropriate homeostatic
response to increase the rate and the depth of breathing. This would mean that the
carbon dioxide levels in the blood would decreases as it is being secreted out
of the body at a quicker rate. When the carbon dioxide levels within the body
return to normal, the depth and rate of breathing can return to its normal rate
to continue to maintain a constant rate. In order to maintain oxygen levels and
breathing rate three of the body systems must work together; the nervous
system, the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system. The nervous
system plays a role by receiving the message from the receptors and initiating
the correct response the appropriate body parts. The cardiovascular system is
responsible for carrying the oxygen within the blood and for transporting
carbon dioxide from the cells of the body back to the alveoli where gaseous
exchange takes place to remove the carbon dioxide.

Changes in core body temperature are also another natural
homeostatic response to changes in external environment. Temperature regulation
within the body is known as thermoregulation. Thermoregulation is an automatic
response .Average body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius as humans are
homoeothermic or warm blooded. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain which
controls body temperature. Covering the skin are receptors which detect changes
in temperature in the outside temperature. These receptors then send messages
to the hypothalamus concerning these changes so that it can send out the
correct response. When the body temperature becomes too hot, glands produce and
release sweat and this helps to cool the body down by releasing the heat
through evaporation.

Vasodilatation happens when the body becomes too hot. When
the body temperature increases the blood vessels swell or dilate. This allows
more of the warm blood to flow near the skins surface. This means that heat can
be lost to the air. This is also the reason for skin to become reddened when we
are too hot. The hair muscles relax so that the hairs lie flat in order to
allow heat to escape. Sweat is given off and blood flow in the capillaries is
increased.

Vasoconstriction is the name for the process which occurs
when the body temperature reduces and we are too cold. The blood vessels narrow
or constrict in order to reduce the flow of the warm blood near to the skins
surface. This means that there is less heat loss by the air and is the reason
why skin looks pale when we are cold. The hair muscles underneath the skin
cause the hairs to stand up in order for them to trap heat. The name for this
is piloerection. There is also a decreased blood flow in the capillaries and
our muscles rapidly contract to warm up the surrounding tissue. This is the
cause of shivering when we feel cold. Thyroxin is a hormone which is released
from the thyroid in order to increase temperature. It is very important for our
body to have these homeostatic responses as out body’s chemical activity begins
to slow when our core body temperature falls below 35 degree Celsius.

Finally, blood glucose levels are another process which is
controlled through homeostasis within the body. Glucose is the name of the main
sugar which is produced by the diet and is made from the food we consume.
Glucose is carried via the bloodstream and is used in order to produce energy
for the cells within the body. The concentration of glucose in the blood is
detected by receptors cells in the pancreas (part of the digestive system). The
pancreas is the organ which is responsible for producing and secreting insulin-
insulin is another example of the hormone thyroxin. The body cells need glucose
to be able to function and so this homeostatic mechanism works to keep the
body’s glucose levels at a constant rate for them to work. In the same way as
insulin is used, glucagon increases the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Hen glucagon is released it results in glucose being given out by cells. The
pancreas is the part of the body which has the responsibility to send chemical
messengers to stimulate the release of either insulin or glucagon, depending on
what is necessary. Insulin also plays the role of motivating the uptake of
glucose by the liver. In the liver it is converted into glycogen.

M2-

In this part of the assignment I will discuss the probable
homeostatic responses to change in the internal environment during exercise.
When you are exercising different changes occur in the body in order to be able
to deal with the change in the environment and the reaction that occurs in the
body. Homeostasis is for the process of the body to maintain a consistent
internal state. The nervous system sends and receives signals about
temperature, hydration, blood pressure and much more factors. The endocrine
system carries chemical messengers to transmit body functions. During any form
of exercise, the body’s internal environment is altered and places under a
considerable amount of stress. Through the homeostatic feedback mechanisms, the
body is able to maintain a healthy internal environment and quickly return to
normal after the exercise ends.

These homeostatic mechanisms respond to exercise with
changes in the heart rate, respiration, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide,
pulse rate, blood pressure and body temperature.

During the exercise, the body requires more oxygen and also
smooth removal of care dioxide. In order to meet his respiratory system
responds to changes in the breathing rate. The cardiovascular system modifies
the heart rate , blood pressure and capillary beds to maintain the body
temperature around 37 degrees and blood pressure roughly around 120/80mmgh.

The probable homeostatic responses to changes in the
internal environment during exercise to the heart rate, your body’s working
muscles require additional stores of oxygen to help feed their energy
requirements. The body receives oxygen from the lungs and transmits it to your
muscles through your bloodstream. The heart controls the flow of blood
throughout the body and your heart rate is a factor of that flow. Therefore
when your muscles work harder and require more oxygen, your heart rate
increases to meet the needs to maintain a consistent internal state, the harder
you work the faster your heart pumps.

The probable homeostatic responses to changes in the
internal environment during exercise to the breathing rate, exercise will
increase the demands on your body to supply the fuel it needs to perform. Your
body’s need for oxygen will increase. As the demand increases, your breathing
rate will increase as your body attempts to exercise efficiently and provide a
reasonable amount of oxygen to cells. The cardiovascular system will also
adjust to provide energy and remove wastes including carbon dioxide from
breathing.

The probable  homeostatic
responses to changes in the internal environment during exercise to body
temperature, exercises causes your body system for regulating temperature to
kick into high gear. Heat production by the body can cause your internal
temperature to rise up to 40°celcius. Your body has internal processes that
allow for control over this rise.

The probable homeostatic responses to changes in the
internal environment during exercise to blood glucose levels to fall, due to
the body drawing from fuel not only fat but also from glucose stores which is
found in the blood, muscles and the liver. Sugar is first drawn from the blood;
even short bursts of exercise can cause a temporary blood glucose drop. The
more intense, longer lasting exercise sessions depletes glycogen deposits in
the liver. It can take up to 24 hours for the body to replenish these stores,
which leaves you at an increased risk for a post-exercise blood sugar drop.

D2

Homeostasis is important in maintaining good health because
it maintains cellular function. If the cells in our body weren’t at the right
temperature and don’t receive enough oxygen they wouldn’t function properly and
eventually they would die.

Negative feedback is vital in maintaining homeostasis
because when a certain factor within the body varies from the norm, receptors
detect it and send a message through either the parasympathetic or sympathetic
nervous system to start corrective mechanisms to restore it back to the norm.
For example, if a person gets too cold the receptors detect this sending a
message through the sympathetic nervous system causes the hairs on your body to
raise trapping air to keep the body warm and it sends a message to your muscles
so they spasm to produce heat. This is important because if your body gets too
cold your cells can’t maintain cellular function and would become denatured.
The optimum temperature for the body is 37 degrees Celsius so is your
temperature drops below temperature it won’t be able to function at a healthy
level. This is known as hypothermia.

Hypothermia can also put the body at risk. If the body rises
above the optimum temperature your cells cannot maintain healthy cellular
function and would become denatured. Receptors pick this negative feedback up
and send a message through the sympathetic nervous system to flatten the hair
on your body to increase conductivity, it causes the sweat glands to secrete
liquid which evaporates of your body to cool you down and it causes your
capillaries to rise to the surface of your skin to radiate heat to help cool
the body down. All of this help to regulate your body’s temperature to maintain
good cellular function therefore maintaining healthy functioning of the body.

Homeostasis is also responsible for keeping the heart
beating at a steady pace. A normal healthy heart rate for most people is 60-100
bpm. If someone is doing exercise it is normal for the heart rate to increase
because chemoreceptors detect an increase in pH and carbon dioxide in the blood
so a message is sent through the sympathetic nervous system to the sinoatrial
(SA) node and the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine to make
the heart beat faster to supply the body’s cells with oxygen. It’s also normal
for the heart rate to decrease when someone is sleeping because the sympathetic
nervous system becomes less dominant and the parasympathetic nervous system
takes over which causes the heart rate to slow. But, overall 60-100 bpm is a
healthy heart rate and if it drops below this when someone’s not resting it
could mean that they have bradycardia which could cause heart failure, syncope
(loss of consciousness/fainting), angina and high blood pressure. If someone’s
heart rate was too fast they could have tachycardia which could cause
dizziness/light-headedness, heart palpitations, angina, shortness of breath,
unconsciousness and cardiac arrest. So it’s important for homeostasis to
regulate the hearts bpm because otherwise you would not have a healthy functioning
body.

Homeostasis is also responsible for regulating a person’s
breathing rate. A normal, healthy breathing rate for most adults is between
8-16 breathes per minute. It’s normal for the breathing rate to increase during
exercise because chemoreceptors detect an increased pH and carbon dioxide in
the blood so a message is sent through the sympathetic nervous system to the
diaphragm and intercostal muscles to make the move faster causing the breathing
rate to go up so that the body can get more oxygen. It’s also normal for a
person’s breathing rate to be lower than the norm whilst they’re sleeping
because the sympathetic nervous system becomes less dominant so the
parasympathetic nervous system takes over causing the breathing rate to
decrease. But whilst awake the norm is between 8-16 breathes per minute. If
someone’s breathing rate is less than this they have bradypnea which could be
caused by many health problems such as high blood pressure/hypertension. If
someone’s breathing rate is too fast they have tachypnea which could be caused
by many health problems such as hypoglycaemia. So, it’s important for
homeostasis to regulate breathing rate because having either bradypnea or
tachypnea means that the body is not functioning healthily leading to an array
of health problems.

To conclude, if homeostasis did not regulate systems within
the body and react to negative feedback it would cause many health problems and
cellular function couldn’t be maintained so it would easily lead to death,
therefore, homeostasis is vital in maintaining the healthy functioning of the
body.

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