Migration is the movement of people from one region to another in search of better social and economic services. It involves the crossing of administrative or political boundaries. Migration mainly results from social and economic developments in a certain region. International migration involves the crossing of international frontiers separating different states. In other words, international migration occurs at the international level. People move from their original home countries or states to other states for various social, political, economic, and economic reasons.
The objective of the essay is to explore the major factors that cause international migration flows. Different factors such as economic pressures, social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries, immigrant admissions and immigration control policies, and cultural perceptions held by people in developing countries on immigration and First World immigrant receiving countries have been explored. In addition, the most important factors affecting international migration flows are also explained and justified. One of the major causes of international migration flows is economic pressures.
Poor economic growth, coupled with low unemployment rate has historically compelled people to migrate from their countries to other countries with well established market economies. For instance, the fall of former USSR led to the migration of its nationals to neighboring countries which had well established markets. Furthermore, countries in the economic transition period experience high rates of international migrations because of the anticipated economic benefits. Countries with closer social networks and connections have always encouraged international migrations as it strengthens international economic ties. For example, some developed countries have closer ties and agreements with the less developed countries to encourage migration to foster international relationships. Other countries have also established immigrant admissions and immigration control policies to encourage international migration flows.
Most Commonwealth countries have already put in place immigrant admission and immigration control polices. For example, Australia encourages migration of skilled employees from Commonwealth countries to be part of the demanding labour market. Majority of the people in developing countries and First World immigrant receiving countries have various cultural perceptions as regards the migration. Most people in developing countries perceive that it is their right to migrate to their immediate colonies for better economic and social welfare. In addition, people have the cultural perception that First World immigrant receiving countries are indebted to them. As a result, people in developing nations are willing to move to the developed and First World receiving nations with the perception that they will be get better offers. This perception has encouraged human trafficking and illegal immigrants in the developed nations.
Based on the analysis, the most important factor is economic pressures followed by the presence of immigrant admissions and immigration control policies. This is because economic pressures encourage international migration flows in the sense that people move with the hope of getting better economic welfare. In addition, economic pressures have always encouraged people to move to developed states with economic stability. Hundred thousands of people are moving from their home countries in search for better economic conditions like employment.
Also, the presence of immigrant admissions and immigration control policies has always encouraged international migration flows between the countries under migration treaties or conventions. Consequently, migrants get job opportunities while the receiving nations are able to provide their services to their citizens.