Expectedly, at the heart of metacognitive instruction is the concept of metacognition, which was proposed, in cognitive psychology more than thirty years ago. At the heart of metacognitive instruction is the theory of metacognition that was introduced in cognitive psychology more than thirty years ago (Goh, 2008). Bozorgian(2014) defined the term metacognition means thinking about thinking or cognition about cognition. Nelson (1996) defined metacognition as a construct that referred to thinking about one’s thinking or the human ability to be conscious of one’s mental processes. As Pintrich, Wolters and Baxter (2000) modified it pertains to awareness of cognition, cognitive strategies and task variables that influence cognition. Jafarigohar and Mortazavi (2016) define that metacognition includes both an individuals knowledge and regulation of cognitive process For Lehitinen and Salonen (2011), metacognition is having knowledge about learning.
That is a part of a learner’s store of acquired knowledge and a system of related ideas, relatively stable, early developing and an abstraction of a learners’ experience. Despite the fact that a wealth of studies have investigated metacognition in various fields, only recently have researchers shifted their attention to metacognition in the context of writing (Larkin,2009). Angelova, 2001 and Dulger,2011) stated that language learners require metacognitive strategies such as planning, monitoring and evaluating to accomplish tasks more efficiently.
According to Flavell (1976), rp1 metacognitive knowledge is “one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes and products or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data” (p. 232).
It is also considered as the ‘seventh sense’ and one of the mental characteristics that successful learners use (Birjandi, 2006 and Goh, 2008). Based on these definitions, metacognition is a form of cognition and a high-level thinking process that involves active control over one’s cognitive processes, hence it is connected to learning. rp1Too old