Ethical principles include beneficencein which to do good, non-maleficence which is not to do destruction, respectfor autonomy, equality, honesty, and righteousness (Scotland, 2012). According to (Laerd Dissertation, 2012), there are numbersof crucial ethical principles that need consideration. As a researcher, thereare five major principles need to be aware of. There are minimalizing the riskof destruction, obtaining informed consent, protecting anonymity andconfidentiality, avoiding unreliable practices, and providing the right towithdraw.In order to minimalizing therisk of destruction, a researcher should obtain informed consent fromparticipants, keeping the namelessness and secrecy of participants,avoiding unreliable practices when planning research, providingparticipants with the right to pull out from research at any time.Critique research should not mischief participants. There must be strongrationalizations for any possibility that participants could be maltreated orput in a position of awkwardness.
Types of maltreats that a participants areexposed such as a physical injury, psychological misery, social hindrance,incursion of participant’s confidentiality and anonymity (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).Furthermore, second ethicalprinciple for the researcher to be obeyed is obtaining informed permission. Informedpermission means the participants should realise the purpose of participationin research and necessities of participants to the research. In otherwords, the participants should be explained regarding the objective of theresearch, the approaches being used, the possible results of the research, aswell as associated strains, discomforts, troubles, and possibilities that theparticipants may exposed to.
The researchers should target not to excludeany factual evidence that will influence the consent will (or will not) beestablished. Additionally, principle of informed permission is the participantsshould be volunteers, participating without having been influenced and deceived.The explanations should be provided in the case of informed permission cannotbe gained from participants (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).Thirdly, the researchersshould protect the participants’ anonymity (namelessness) and confidentiality.This is actually the most crucial part that will attract the participants todeliver their information voluntarily, especially that information which is highlyprivacy or sensitive in nature.
Once the data has been collected, and not treated privately, whether in terms of storageof data, analysis, or during the publication process, there might be more harm anddangerous. However, this does not mean that all data collected from researchparticipants needs to be kept confidential or anonymous. It may be possible to revealthe identity and views of individuals at various stages of the research process(from data collection through to publication of the thesis).
However,permissions should be required before such confidential information is revealed.Alternatively, the researchers are allowed to remove identifiers, like their dialectterms, names, or geographical indications. Besides that, the researchers alsocan provide substitutions when writing up the thesis. However, such a sheddingof identifiable information may not always be possible to anticipate atthe outset of your thesis when thinking about issues of research ethics. Thisis not only a consideration for studies following a qualitative researchdesign, but also a quantitative research design.
Furthermore, theresearchers have to seek permission for accessing to data and analysis which tobe constrained to the published material, possibly only permitting it to be seenby certain individuals only. If the work is later issued, alterations wouldthen need to be prepared to protect the privacy of participants (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).Fourthly, the researchers haveto avoid unreliable practices.
Critique research should avoid anykinds of unreliable practices. Dishonesty is sometimes being an essentialcomponent of concealed research. Concealed research reflects researchwhere the identity of the spectator and/or the objectiveof the research are not known to participants. The researchers may chooseto take part in concealed research because it is not practicable tolet everyone know the purpose of that research. Moreover, the unconcealedobservation or surveillance of the research may change the particularphenomenon or data that is being studied (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).Finally, the fifth ethicalprinciples that used to guide the researchers are providing the participants theright to withdraw. In relation to the fourth principle, the participants willalways have the right to withdraw at any stage from the research progression.
This principle has to go under consolation. The participant should not be tensed or forced inany way for trying to discontinue them from withdrawing (Laerd Dissertation, 2012).