Environmental Science: Biology


Sustainability can be defined as the ability to carry on with something or simply to endure .When this term is applied in ecological studies, “it describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive overtime” (Cunningham 13).

A lot of evidence currently indicates that the world’s population is increasing at a very fast rate especially in the developing countries. This also means that the current population is almost going beyond the earth’s capacity to accommodate human beings. This high population growth rate is likely to strain further the already scarce resources.

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According to the 2008 report that was made by Footprint, there is already a 30% deficit on the resources needed to sustain human beings. Even though the world resources are getting depleted, we can still sustain the ecosystem of the world through the following measures. Human beings should strive to reduce environmental degradation. The scarce resources should also be utilized properly. Human beings can also diversify their resources. For example they can use other renewable sources of energy instead of relying much in fossil fuels.

Renewable and non Renewable Resources

A renewable resource can be defined as a resource which can be replaced through a natural process. Solar and wind energy are two common examples of resources that can be renewed. The industrial revolution has led to over exploitation of the renewable resources.

A non renewable resource refers to those natural resources that cannot be replaced ones they have been exploited. The rate of consumption of their consumption is also seen to be relatively high as compared to the consumption of renewable resources. Examples of non renewable resources include the following: petroleum, coal and uranium.

Ways of Reducing Population Growth

Population growth refers to the pace at which the size of a particular place increases. There is also a close connection between population growth and fertility. The rate of population growth should be put under control because of the few resources at present. High population growth rates can lead to serious environmental degradation and food scarcity.

Reduction of the rate of population growth refers to the artificial methods of controlling population growth. Various countries have experienced serious problems associated with high levels of population growth and their governments came up with mechanisms to manage their high rates of population growth.

In china there is a policy of having only one child in a family. Giving birth to more than one child is totally discouraged. People who give birth out of marriage or illegally are always penalized. For example they can be fined. This policy was introduced in china around 1978. It was aimed at solving China’s social-economic problems which were triggered by the high population. This policy has however faced much criticism in and outside China. This is because it has been recklessly implemented and mismanaged.

In India the same policy has also been practiced. In this case they encourage the citizens to have two children in a family. Only those people with two children and below are legible to vie for public offices in India. Apart from this measure, they have also been using contraceptives.

Iran has been successful in reducing its population growth rate. In Iran, it is compulsory for people to attend family panning courses before they can be given marriage certificates. The government of Iran has greatly stressed on the importance of having small families. It also encourages the citizens to use contraceptives. In USA the government made reproductive health care and education accessible to its citizens. This helped in solving cases of unwanted births.

The Manufacture and Use of Paper

Paper is a product which is manufactured by combining fibers derived from timber. The manufacturing process is quite elaborate. The fibers from wood contain cellulose. Hydrogen bonding is what holds the fibers together. Wood is cut into various sizes and the process called plumping begins.

At this stage, the wood fibers are divided. After that the product is placed inside boilers. The wood chips are then compressed using a special machine. Chemicals are then added to the materials. The product is then dried and finally the paper is cut into different shapes for use. Papers are always used for different activities ranging from writing to printing depending on the paper quality and grade. Waste papers can always be recycled and used for making other papers of low quality like tissue papers.


Due to the high level environmental degradation that stems from poor environmental management, the world ecosystem is really changing. Scientists have envisaged serious environmental challenges if the current global environment is not properly managed.

For example global warming is on the increase and this will adversely affect the human race if not properly checked. For example ice that is melting from the Polar region is already causing floods in some places. I strongly believe that if human beings across the world can be taught how to manage the scarce resources, then they can be able to protect the environment from further degradation.

Works Cited

Cunningham, William. Principles of environmental scince. New York: Mc Graw-Hill, 2010.


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