Driverless task for some drivers, especially the horizontal

Driverless cars

·    Whats Driverless

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·    Specifications

·    How will the car
detected the traffic lights?

·    Technologies
making a system fully autonomous

·    Control of

·    Automated guided
vehicle systems










Whats driverless cars?


It is a vehicle that can drive itself from one point to another without
assistance from driver: in other words, with an autopilot system



·       Wheel-speed

·       Steering-angle

·       Rotational-speed




Brake System – AEB

technique is called Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), which is characterized
by pressure on the brakes in a timely fashion. It is also known that the human
reaction may be affected by many factors, which is not true for this system
which uses radar to identify obstacles and obstacles And the pressure on the
brakes automatically to prevent collisions, but experiments

proven that
in difficult weather conditions could you add to other instruments? Ultrasonic
sensor in addition to  it.


Self Parking

It may be a
difficult task for some drivers, especially the horizontal line between two
cars but not for a 360-degree car equipped with sensors and processor. This
technology first appeared in its primitive form as an aid to Toyota vehicles in
Japan in 2003, allowing the driver to choose The parking area is located on the
control screen in front of it, then controls the speed and brakes and the
vehicle will guide.

But the
situation has evolved today. For example, the BMW-i3, which we mentioned in our
previous list, is able to stand up without any help from the driver. After
arriving at the destination you have already selected, you will automatically
search for suitable stops and show them on the screen to choose the place. The
car is lined up on its own without your help. There are other GPS-based systems
and parking servers to determine the right parking space. All you need to do
when you arrive at your destination is to get out of the car and go to the line
on its own and when you arrive

Adaptive Cruise Control

automated steering system depends partly on the previous techniques. In the end
all the technologies contribute to each other in achieving the automatic
driving. The car can with this technology to guide itself while driving and
deal properly with the cars around it. Using cameras, sensors and image
processing, the car can recognize the relative velocities of objects around it,
not just stationary objects, thereby controlling their speed to suit their
speeds, as well as directing themselves easily.


Lane Keeping

Staying in the “white lines on
the road” path for a car is an important factor to prevent collisions
between other vehicles, which is also important in self-driving cars. There are
many systems to perform this task, including the use of the alarm only,
including the use of cameras to detect deviation from the track to receive the
driver from the driver and return again, but the systems are ineffective,
especially if the white lines are not clear. Today’s technologies rely on
special cameras and image processing systems in addition to latitude and
longitude calculations so rain and fog are not an impediment to them, and they
also have a system to balance the driver’s reaction if it is exaggerated.


Ethical dilemmas

Self-driving cars will be programmed
to avoid collisions, especially for humans. But let’s say someone suddenly
pushed a car towards the road, and there was not enough time for the car to
stop itself. Does the car deviate in the path of pedestrian traffic, possibly
threatening the lives of passengers and the lives of others? Will it be able to
make a different decision if it runs before it? Who will be responsible for
programming such decisions in the car? And what if you do not agree with these
default moral estimates – should it be available to override the default

although there are doubts about the
ability of self-propelled vehicles to deal with emergency situations, they may
help reduce road accidents.

There are doubts about its ability to
deal with those decisions. Of course, the car manufacturers are well aware of
all these ethical issues, which is why Daimler intends to hold a conference
“Self-Leadership, Law and Ethics”, this fall for the first time, car
manufacturers consult with philosophers and moralists.


Setting standards

The self-driving vehicle may need to
communicate directly with each other. But will companies agree on standard
technical specifications for communication from one car to another?

The agreement is the most challenging
challenge for cars without a driver, according to Petro Buggia, car and
transport officer at Frost and Sullivan Research.


Security risks

Modern cars will increasingly rely on
mobile and Internet connectivity, allowing live streaming of traffic, music,
and social media updates. Car communication may be the basis, but this
highlights security issues. The researchers recently showed how they could
control the Jeep Cherokee remotely, after the penetration of the system

and navigation, which is connected to
the Internet through the mobile phone network. This prompted the FIA ??Chrysler
Motor Company to announce a voluntary withdrawal of about 1.4 million vehicles
so this program could be enhanced with additional insurance levels.

In a related development, the British
NCC said that some programs in cars may enable pirates to control their brakes
or steering wheel, noting that the attack can occur through radio signals.


Do we really need them?

The global success of the BBC’s Top
Gear program is an indication of how much we love cars and driving. Many of us
like the feeling of freedom and excitement that cars give us, and sitting in
the seat of control is an important aspect of it.

But in the world of cars without a
driver we will become inactive and non-participants, and the value of the car
will be reduced as a commodity, to become a mere tool for mobility. Where’s the
fun in it?

Vehicles without a driver may provide
an appropriate means of transportation for the elderly and people with varying
degrees of disability, but most experts believe that these vehicles will be
restricted to work in urban areas and in specific ways only.

“The car is completely
self-contained, where you can program your car to drive somewhere and read a
newspaper in the back seat, frankly this is a science fiction for me,”
says Giesler.

Future goals and commercially available

I strongly believe that the deployment
of cars without drivers will benefit society and increase the standard of
living, especially in densely populated areas such as Singapore. But even
though the experimental testing in the Chinese and Japanese parks was very
positive, it is difficult to predict when a driverless car will become a
reality on a large scale, because it is linked to many elements. The
environment must be ready to integrate these vehicles; Governments must have a
forward-looking view of the introduction of the necessary technology in the
community, such as charging stations and network infrastructure that enable
vehicle-to-person connectivity, and make the required changes to future city
planning Public awareness is needed to ensure that people, both passengers and
men, feel comfortable with driverless driving technology. The challenge is to
introduce enhanced safety aspects associated with independent cars with loss of
individual vehicle ownership. Cars will operate within a public transport
network, where people can request or “call” a car by an electronic
request: after the car arrives at your destination, you will start to take
another passenger waiting. The permanent mobility of independent cars is
expected to shrink by about a third from the number of vehicles on the road. We
are therefore working on how to improve this technology in terms of efficiency
and effectiveness.


Singapore is looking into ways to
integrate independent cars into the transport system – a busy city with an area
of ??700 km2 and a population of 5.5 million. By 2013, the number of vehicles
in the road is more than 974,000. With the recent announcement that the
One-North area will take on an independent testing ground for

independent vehicles, our next step
will be to test the current capabilities of the vehicle and follow up on public
road research. These ongoing research will enable us to improve response
methods for expected pedestrian behavior, and further develop understanding and
response to road infrastructure such as lane lines, traffic lights and the
right to precedence traffic.

In general, I hope that in the next
three years we will see an initial publication of these cars in some form, and
I hope that in the community there will be unmanned cars incorporated into the
transport system by 2025. We still have a long way to go, but we will
eventually arrive.


How Google’s cars work

The “driver” sets a destination. The
car’s software calculates a route and starts the car on its way.

A rotating, roof-mounted LIDAR (Light
Detection and Ranging – a technology similar to radar) sensor monitors a
60-meter range around the car and creates a dynamic 3-D map of the car’s
current environment.

A sensor on the left rear wheel monitors
sideways movement to detect the car’s position relative to the 3-D map.

Radar systems in the front and rear
bumpers calculate distances to obstacles.

Artificial intelligence (AI) software
in the car is connected to all the sensors and has input from Google Street
View and video cameras inside the car.

The AI simulates human perceptual and
decision-making processes and controls actions in driver-control systems such
as steering and brakes.

The car’s software consults Google
Maps for advance notice of things like landmarks and traffic signs and lights.

An override function is available to
allow a human to take control of the vehicle.


Proponents of systems based on
driverless cars say they would eliminate accidents caused by driver error,
which is currently the cause of almost all traffic accidents. Furthermore, the
greater precision of an automatic system could improve traffic flow,
dramatically increase highway capacity and reduce or eliminate traffic jams.
Finally, the systems would allow commuters to do othe

things while traveling, such as
working, reading or sleeping


Security Concerns

The widespread implementation of
driverless cars, as safe as they are designed to be, indeed has some chance in
posing as a threat to a passenger. Buyers will essentially have to make a
personal decision as to which is safer: the machine’s calculated decision
versus a human’s natural intuition and discretion. As secure as the car may
seem with its cameras, maps and calculations, computers are never fully immune
to the risks of crashing, malware interference and viruses. At times, airplanes
and traffic control systems fail due to such technological anomalies. The buyer
must then weigh the benefits with such a concern. What makes the driverless car
vulnerable to this risk?








Social Problems Involved

After a great deal of research
regarding this topic, one may deduce that the greatest social and personal
problem related to the driverless car is the fact that it takes away the
essence of driving a car. One needs to weigh the benefits of the driverless car
against the attachment they may feel towards controlling their vehicle at all
times. Further, more economically, the success of insurance companies and their
rates rely on human error and vehicular issues. The driverless car may have the
potential to weaken and decrease the number of jobs in such a large market.
Such a significant decrease in collisions per year may indeed have a grave
effect on the U.S. economy. Lastly, utilizing the car will be the driver’s
decision to sacrifice some privacy. Google has refused to endorse simple
privacy protection. In a letter sent from Consumer Watchdog to the California
governor, “Google’s entire business model is based on building digital dossiers
about our personal behavior and using them to sell the most personal
advertising to us. You’re not Google’s customer; you are its product,”
(“Consumer watchdog,” 2012). The fact that one’s movements and destinations can
be recorded and sent back to the Google headquarters certainly does imply that
one’s privacy will be compromised in return for a driverless car.


·      Without the need for a driver, cars could
become mini-leisure rooms. There would be more space and no need for everyone
to face forwards. Entertainment technology, such as video screens, could be
used to lighten long journeys without the concern of distracting the driver.

·      Over 80% of car crashes in the USA are caused
by driver error. There would be no bad drivers and less mistakes on the roads,
if all vehicles became driverless. Drunk and drugged drivers would also be a
thing of the past.

·      Travelers would be able to journey overnight
and sleep for the duration.

·     Traffic
could be coordinated more easily in urban areas to prevent long tailbacks at
busy times. Commute times could be reduced drastically.

·      Reduced or non-existent fatigue from driving,
plus arguments over directions and navigation would be a thing of the past.

·      Sensory technology could potentially perceive
the environment better than human senses, seeing farther ahead, better in poor
visibility, detecting smaller and more subtle obstacles, more reasons for less
traffic accidents.

·      Speed limits could be increased to reflect the
safer driving, shortening journey times.

·      Parking the vehicle and difficult maneuvering
would be less stressful and require no special skills. The car could even just
drop you off and then go and park itself.

·      People who historically have difficulties with
driving, such as disabled people and older citizens, as well as the very young,
would be able to experience the freedom of car travel. There would be no need
for drivers’ licenses or driving tests.

·      Autonomous vehicles could bring about a
massive reduction in insurance premiums for car owners.

·     Efficient
travel also means fuel savings, cutting costs.

·      Reduced need for safety gaps means that road
capacities for vehicles would be significantly increased.

·      Passengers should experience a smoother riding

·     Self-aware
cars would lead to a reduction in car theft.




Driverless cars would likely be out of the price range of most
ordinary people when generally introduced, likely costing over $100,000.

Truck drivers and taxi drivers will lose their jobs, as
autonomous vehicles take over.

A computer malfunction, even just a minor glitch, could cause
worse crashes than anything that human error might bring about.

If the car crashes, without a driver, who’s fault is it:
Google/the software designer, or the owner of the vehicle?

The cars would rely on the collection of location and user information,
creating major privacy concerns.

Hackers getting into the vehicle’s software and controlling or
affecting its operation would be a major security worry.

There are problems currently with autonomous vehicles operating
in certain types of weather. Heavy rain interferes with roof-mounted laser
sensors, and snow can interfere with its cameras.

Reading human road signs is challenging for a robot.

As drivers become more and more used to not driving, their
proficiency and experience will diminish. Should they then need to drive under
certain circumstances, there may be problems.

The road system and infrastructure would likely need major
upgrades for driverless vehicles to operate on them. Traffic and street lights,
for instance, would likely all need altering.

Self-driving cars would be great news for terrorists, as they
could be loaded with explosives and used as moving bombs.

Ethical problems could arise which a machine might struggle to
deal with. Faced with a choice between plowing into a group of schoolchildren
or going off a bridge and killing all its passengers, what does the vehicle do?
Should the vehicle always swerve to avoid animals in the road or always
prioritize the safety and comfort of passengers?

Human behavior such as hand signals are difficult for a computer
to understand.

How would the police interact with driverless vehicles,
especially in the case of accidents or crimes?




In conclusion, upon
addressing the mechanics of the driverless car as well as its benefits and
potential issues, it is quite interesting to see how the world will actually
become by the year 2040. Is IEEE correct? Will the rite of passage of attaining
one’s driver license cease to exist? It is truly in the reader’s discretion to
determine and weigh the impacts that the driverless car will have on society in
the future. Until then, it is fascinating to see the effects this creation will
have on the states in which it is legalized as well as on the people that have
chosen to experiment with it.



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