Discrimination were based on skin color. Most blacks

Discrimination is one of the most
persistent malpractices in the employment sector. During the Jim-Crow era,
incidences of discrimination at the workplace were based on skin color. Most
blacks were denied opportunities of entering into good paying jobs and
accessing education. McDonald (2012, p.10) indicated that women were blocked
from employment before the emergence of women movement in the nineteenth
century. During this period, women were meant to stay at home and abide by
their home duties. The issue of gender discrimination at the workplace subjects
females to different aspects of discrimination in the employment sector like
unfair payments, unnecessary sexual advances and long working hours. Okechukwu
(2014, p.575) defined gender discrimination as the act of limiting the ability
of women to access and enjoy favorable working conditions and treatments.
Generally, it refers to the unfair treatment of a person or a group of people
in the workplace. Discrimination, involves the favoring of, or against a person
or people due to underlying factors, including the class to which a person
belongs to.

In most instances, discrimination is
caused by developing assumptions, rather than taking time to know the real
attributes of a person. In some cases, a person may favor another at a workplace
due to personal ties and connections (Reskin & Hartmann, 2016). The
workplace is among the significant places where discrimination has persisted.
Discrimination in the workplace refers to the instance in which an employer
acts with cruelty towards an employee or even a prospective employee. Stainback
& Irvin (2012, p.660) outlined that discrimination at the workplace is
generally of race, age, gender, religion, physical or mental disability sexual
orientation, among other factors.

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Nevertheless, discrimination in the
workplace is not a new phenomenon; preferably, it is a vice that has been
experienced for decades. Discrimination occurs on different grounds, and a wide
range of measures have been employed to eliminate various forms of
discrimination at the workplace. However, successful elimination of
discrimination at the workplace has been attained. The problem persists in
different employment sectors. It is essential to notice that there are factors
that contribute to the persistence of discrimination despite the efforts being made
to stop it. The most prevalent stereotype that the women face at places of work
is that they are not strong enough to take up highly labor-intensive jobs. For
this reason, in most instances, women have been barred from taking up technical
jobs based on the assumption that they will not be able to deliver efficiently.
Women are not given the opportunity to attempt and determine whether they are
capable of taking up the employment opportunities, instead, they are dismissed
by mere prejudice. There are also some employers who avoid giving employment
opportunities to young women than their male counterparts, even when they are
qualified. Burkhauser, Schmeiser & Weathers (2012, p.165) argued that
discrimination on female prospective employees is because some employers feel
that the young women will require maternity leaves during times when they are
not ready and willing to offer leave opportunities to employees. Such employers
argue that irregular maternity leaves to young female employees can interfere
with the workflow or production and performance consistency, as well as
efficiency in a business or organization. Additionally, the employers may feel
that having a pregnant woman within the staff reduces the productivity of the
employees. There are some instances where the expectant women go without pay
after taking maternity leaves or get dismissed from work on basis of asking for
maternity leaves.

Roberts, Davies & Jupp (2014,
p.148) affirmed that there are several cases where employers favor males and
mistreat females. When male and females carry out similar duties at the
workplace, men are entitled to higher compensation than females. This is not based
on the quantity of job accomplished. Basically, women are forced to do more
work in order to earn as their male counterparts. According to Heilman (2012,
p.121) it was indicated that such employers subject male employees to favorable
working conditions based on superiority complex. In most cases, the voices of
males are given higher priority than those of females, for instance regarding
the rapidity of responding to complaints. Complaints at the workplace can be
based on poor working conditions, unequal and unfair compensation, and
favoritism to some employees amongst others.

The problem of discriminating women in
the workplace has escalated to dangerous levels. It has also emerged amongst
employees such that male workers disregard and disrespect females based on
gender. As a result, females feel less regarded, respected and recognized by
males. This, in turn, affects adversely the performance level of female
workers. It also hinders the ability of women to learn from men in different
working environments. Instead, they feel it is better to work in isolation of
their male fellows who subject discrimination and criticism. According to
McLaughlin, Uggen & Blackstone (2012, p.630), free interaction and exchange
of ideas amongst employees promote better employee performance, a consistent
flow of work, and continuity in production. However, this is hindered by gender
bias and other forms of discrimination amongst employees. A non-interactive and
divided team of employees do not have a common focus on organizations goals
(Pager & Western, 2012, p.229). Instead, they are distracted by various
forms of discrimination that they face in a workplace. Since employees are
unable to eliminate the issue of gender discrimination, females are forced to
endure such conditions in order to provide some income for their families. In some
cases where male and female workers share duties at work, males tend to leave
more work for females. On the other hand, females find it hard to complain to
their employees about the mistreatments that they are subjected to by their
male fellows. Some females also fear to complain because they might risk losing
their jobs.

There are instances where women lose
employment or promotion opportunities due to the fact of being female.
Delfgaauw et al., (2013, p.312) outlined that some employers overlook
individual professional qualifications, work experience and performance
capabilities due to inconsiderate gender preferences. Basford, Offermann  & Behrend (2014, p.343) found out that
many females with excellent skills and performance do not get employed due to
the unbreakable ‘york’ gender discrimination in employment. In cases of
extended opportunities like promotion and selective employee training,
employers mostly pick on male workers while ignoring females who are equally
capable and qualified for such opportunities. Additionally, some female employees
have higher performance capability and career discipline than males. Statistics
indicate that male employees are more likely to get promoted at work than

Other measures that have been taken to
ensure that women are not discriminated against in workplaces include the
formation of trade unions. Employees are supposed to join the trade unions under
which their job descriptions fall, who are supposed to ensure their members are
protected from different aspects of discrimination at work. They bear the
responsibility of fighting for the rights of member-employees in terms better
compensation, good working conditions and equal gender recognition. Interest
and civic groups have conducted campaigns and protests against gender
discrimination in the society (Heilman, 2012, p.131-132). This covers for
discrimination of females in homes, workplaces, and institutions. Organizations
like the European Union have launched various campaigns and initiatives aimed
at promoting gender equality in the society.

Kelsey (2015, p.1) argued that it is
necessary to empower females and creating more awareness of gender equality.
This will offer effective teachings and enlightenment to women. More women will
be able to understand their individual rights and their rightful position in
the society. They will be able to realize their capabilities in terms of
participation in economic development, identifying and utilizing talents as
well as developing the courage to fight against gender discrimination.
According to Ranson & Byrne (2014,p.2779-2780), increased women education
will create more awareness and consciousness towards various aspects of gender
discrimination in the society. In reference to gender discrimination at
workplaces, increased education and awareness provide female employees with
more information on places or organizations where they can report such cases.

Despite several education and awareness
initiatives, most women have gained enough courage to fight against gender
discrimination. Some women have not realized that they have similar and equal
capabilities as men in sectors of employment. They still have little faith and
confidence in themselves. Hence, allowing for male dominance in some sectors of
the economy like the industrial sector. Lack of belief in one’s self and
confidence prevents most females from taking up certain employment
opportunities or executing technical roles with a lot of vigor and competence.
They tend to act out of fear, reluctance, and expressions of incapability. Therefore,
the population of employed females does not expand significantly (Kelsey, 2015,p.1).
Being that, most females do not have the courage of taking up technical jobs,
as such sectors are continuously dominated by men. As a result, the notion that
females are weak is continuously persisted in the society. This implies that
females also contribute to the persistence of gender discrimination at

According to Webster (2014, p.78), the
fact that there is an insufficient number of trade unions and organizations
that fight against gender discrimination in the employment sector also
contributes to the persistence of discriminations of females at workplaces. The
prevalence of gender discrimination at workplaces is high in almost all
countries in the world. On the other hand, active unions and organizations,
which fight for equal consideration and recognition of females for promotion,
training, and hiring are less. They are incapable of responding to or handling
all cases that rise across the globe. This implies several cases of gender
discrimination in the employment for unnoticed, hence, promoting the chances of

There are cases where females fail to
report cases of mistreatments at workplaces. Pager & Western (2012, p.228)
outlined persistence of gender discrimination at workplace can be caused by a
lack of adequate information. Victimized female workers may choose to hold the
information of discrimination, either willing or unwillingly from relevant
authorities. In some, cases, the female employees who face discrimination in
the workplace may be unaware of the privilege or reporting their problems to
responsible trade unions (Pager & Western, 2012, p.230). In this case,
therefore, they are likely to suffer due to the lack of knowledge. According to
Heilman (2012, p.129), some women fear to report cases of discrimination at
workplaces because they fear to face harsher treatments from their employers.
Handling the issue of gender discrimination in the private has a lot of
complications since the employers own the full authority of hiring and firing
workers. Females who are employed can risk losing their jobs if they report
cases of gender discrimination within private businesses and organizations.
Being that most employers are males, female employees who tend to fight for
their rights risk facing difficulties getting employed in the future. Hence,
female employees face repetitive discrimination due to lack of information and
fear of either losing or having poor relationships with employers.

In conclusion, it is difficult to
complete the problem of gender discrimination at the workplace. In various
countries, different laws have been put in place to reduce and eliminate
discrimination of women in the workplace. The setup laws are also accompanied
by penalties against individuals, groups, and organizations, which discriminate
employees based on gender or sex. Nonetheless, various laws have been put in
place against employment discrimination based on sex, at times, the legal authorities
do not take the necessary actions against the offenders. Burkhauser, Schmeiser
& Weathers (2012, p.171) confirmed that anti-discrimination law has played
a significant role in reducing the level of gender discrimination in the
employment sector. Most employers refrain from subjecting females to harsh
working conditions, unfair payments, and unethical sexual advances because of
the penalties that they are likely to face as outlined in the underlying laws.
Hence, governments and anti-discrimination organizations should enact and
reinforce strict laws against gender discrimination. A country with a large
population of employed women has a more stable economy than those with less
number of employed females.


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