describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: physical development, communication and intellectual development, social, emotional and behavioural development?The aspect of development that children are measured on are social
,physical, intellectual, communication and emotional development.
Children’s development can be measured in a lots of
different ways . All children will
develop at different ways and in different rates but the sequence is roughly
the same for example crawling before
they walking and running.
Social, emotional and
Social development refers to how people develop social and
emotional skills across the life with particular attention to childhood and
adolescence. Healthy social and emotional development allow them to form a
positive relationship with family, friends, teachers and other people in their life.
0 to 9 months;
Babies will cry to fullfill their needs and to get
Babies start to develop relationships with the people around
them right from birth. They responding the voices and start smiling. They are
not comfortable with strangers but they show their love to parents or carers. They
will start to respond to their name . At this stage babies are very comfortable
with their routines and may be they going to be upset if their routines are
changed but their emotional reactions
are not last long. They will develop
strong bond with their parents or carers.
At 6 or 7 moths they will start to communicate using the
voice and facial expression. They can express their likes and dislikes
1 to 3;
At this stage they will recognize them self in the mirror
photograph and smile. They enjoying to play with other children or adult but
may be not yet able to share their things with them. Begin to say “NO” to bed
time and other requests. They copy adults action and words. They hug and kiss
their parents and bring things to show other people. They feel jealous when
they haven’t got attention and they got upset
At this age toddlers will try to help others like tidy up their things after playing. They like to
play alone and with other children and
when they play with other children they like to copy each other.
Sometimes toddlers are not feeling very comfortable in front
of strangers or in a new situations. At this stage they want to do things
independently and if a toddler is unable
to do something he is getting
frustrated and he may not be able to
control his emotions .When they are not in a mood they may
snatch toys from others. If u give them a choice to choose something,
they may find difficult to choose one thing
and its easy for them to choose both
3 to 5
Children go through many changes from age 3 to 5 years
Children understand the idea of taking turns but they do not
always do it. They may developed fears especially at night. They may have
conversations with themselves. They like to play with other children.
Children’s emotions can quickly swing from laughing to
crying for example they may boast a lot and stretch the truth about their
They become more cooperative with peers especially in group
activities but they also may show increased self centeredness and fail to wait
their turns. They have strong desire to do things independently. They like to
pretend they are other people and to play dress-up. Peer groups are closer and
children this age may develop a favourite friend. Children are able to share,
take turns, and play in groups. Their play is more involved and includes roles
props and costumes. They show a great deal of affection toward other especially
smaller children, animals or a child who is hurt. They usually follow the
instructions. Children this age are better controlling their emotions. They
enjoy entertaining their parents and other children. They also like to make
them laugh. They are very proud of their achievements and are not shy about
talking about them.
5 to 7
Children of this age group begin to develop key life skills
such as taking turns, cooperating with others and accepting responsibility for
their actions. They develop social skill to make friends. They are good mimic
they copy both good and bad adult behaviour. They can communicate well with
others without any help.
They understand their own feelings .They are able to use
words to describe their own feelings. Enjoy playing alone but prefer to play with
friends. They enjoy playing games with simple rules. Sharing doesn’t always
happen but play can be creative.
They had best friend and enemy, which can change frequently.
Children can be selfcentered during this age but also have the capacity to be
sensitive to others. They are willing to help when they see someone in trouble.
They can manage feelings and social situations with greater independence but
they still need help to resolve their little conflict or arguments. They also
have a basic understanding of what’s right or wrong.
7 to 12
At this age they
develop a more in depth understanding of hoe social interaction works. They
started to enjoy teamwork and got to experience how good it feels to
contribute. They will enjoy socializing.
They show a competitive spirit when playing games. They
willing to help at home such as cleaning the table after a meal or tidying up
Children will be increasingly aware of what other may think
of them. At this age chidren’s friendship become more settled and they have
12 to 19
The teenager may become self-consious as changes in their
body shape and possibly acne develops as a result of oilier skin so more than
anything they need reassurance.
Emotional maturity is constantly shifting moving them between childish need and adult
desires. They are not just being awkward for the sake of it. Their bodies and emotions
are experiencing drastic changes.
At this age people find themselves under the pressure of
growing up and with increasing expectations from adults. Their self esteem can
be very vulnerable. They want to be independent and beginning the move away
from parents and close towards their friends. They become less concerned about
adult approval and turn instead to their friends. Many teens develop very close
friendships within their own gender. Most also develop an intense interest in
the opposite sex. They see security in group acceptance and follow peer group
dress and behaviour codes. Having the
same ‘lables’ collecting the same items and playing the same computer games are
very important. Taken out of the emotional security provided by family, they are subject to all
the whims of their peers including potential rejection.
A phase of intense questioning and uncertainty usually
occurs as adolescent begin to reappraise parental and community values and
beliefs. No longer are they accepted without question. Each one has to be
personally accepted or rejected to become part of the young person’s own value
system. Parents are sometimes fearful of this increasing questioning and their
children’s increasing freedom and independence.
0 to 3 years;
New born babies have little control over their bodies. Their
movement depends on series of reflexes as they get older they start to develop
series of movements and actions called the ‘gross motor skills’ such as
crawling, sitting, grabbing, pointing, walking, running, rolling, hopping,
jumping and so on. They can walking up and down stairs with adult help. They
trying to feed themselves with a spoon.
In their second year children should have better ability to
control their movement. They can push and pull the toys while walking, wave
goodbye and enjoy the picture book. They start to shake head for ‘NO’. They can
crawl upstairs and build a tower of few bricks. In their third year children would start to
develop some ‘fine motor skills’ such as painting, colouring and scribbling.
They would enjoy looking at and turning the pages of book. At this age they
should be able to use a cup and feed themselves. They can kick the ball very
3 to 7 years;
At this age all of a child’s baby teeth are in. Children are
able to climb stairs one foot at a time. They have greater gross motor skills
for example they can stand briefly on one foot, kick a large ball, throw overhand and play catch with a large ball. They like activities
such as peddling a tricycle and swinging
on a swing set.
They have improved fine motor skills for example they are
better able to hold crayons and markers. At the age of 4 they can hop using
only one foot. Running is easier they can stop and start more easily. They
enjoy climbing on playground equipment. They can feed themselves with a spoon
and fork. They can make shapes out of play dough hold a pencil and write
letters. They can use the bathroom by themselves.
Children can walk backwards easily. They can climb up and
down stairs interchanging their feet without help. Their gross motor skills are
advance, they can tumble, skip and easily catch a ball. They can balance at one
foot at least 10 seconds. They can copy shapes and letters, cut with scissor
better and start to colour within the boundries of colouring book picture.
At the age of 7 children will be refining the skills
developed so far, they will have more confidence and more control over the fine
skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They can skip, rides bicycle, jump
from height and climb confidently.
7 to 12;
Children would start to have hobbies and interest such as
sports, dance, drama, and songs. Children will continue to develop and refine
of their skills. The girls will start to show signs of early puberty from age
10-11 puberty in boys usually start later .They can jump, skip ,hit a ball,
climb and swing. They enjoy playing team games.
12 to 19;
Young people also see many physical developments and
changing the appearance of their bodies. Everyone’s rate of growth is
different. During adolescence co-ordination and strength increase greatly and
by age 19 or 20 the adolescence has full adult motor capacities.
Adolescence for boys usually begins late then for girls and
usually occurs around fourteen years of age. However at the end of this growth
period boys are usually bigger than girls. Boys at this age are beginning to
develop sex characteristics such as deep voices and body hair and also
experience muscle growth and start to take on a manly physique. Testicle and
scrotum growth begins in early to mid- puberty.
Some boys move through puberty quickly while others worry
about their lack of development. These variations can be difficult for slow
developers to handle. It’s important that adult reassure them that their rate
of development is not related to final physical potential.
After initial breast budding around the age of 10, a girl’s
breasts gradually begin to swell. Their pubic hair will begin to grow darken
and become curlier. Their bodies become more rounded, developing the curves of
By 13 some girls are almost physically mature but there a
wide variations in the ages when puberty begins and ends. A few girls may begin
to develop early as 8 and others may show no obvious changes until late teens.
The average age of the onset menstruation is around 13.
Some girls have reached full physical maturity by the age of
14 or 15 and some are only beginning the process. Depending on the age of
pubertal onset, the teen age girl may be almost physically mature at 15 and is
likely to be close to her full adult height. She may have a woman’s figure
although her breasts and hips may still become fuller.
Communication and Intellectual development;
Children’s communication and Intellectual development
depends to a large extent on their own experiences and the opportunities they
are given from the earliest age.
0 to 3 years;
Babies watch their carers face especially the mouth and try
to copy its movements. They will show feelings by squealing with pleasure or
crying. Babies will start to be listening to language around them and enjoy
songs and games. Some children will start to speak at 12 months although not
By one and 2 years children will start to put words together
and their vocabulary will increase. Between age 2 and 3 children will start to
used negative and plurals in their speech although they will make errors in their grammar when
speaking. They begin to realise that others are separate from themselves.
Imitates others and tries out ways of behaving in play. They become more
confident but still need adult assurance. In the second years children start to
understand the use of conversation and begin to copy carers. They begin to ask
question and they can use several hundred words by their 3rd
3 to 7;
Children have better conversational skills. They respond
properly to questions, continue a conversation with an appropriate comment and
ask questions that lead to conversations for example ‘why did he do that?’
Their attention span is about three minutes. They can speak
300 to 1000 words. They can sing song and recite nursery rhymes.
At the age of 4 they
able to respond to question such as ‘whose’?
and ‘why’? They start to use
verbs properly in the past tense for example ‘Mummy went upstairs’. They can
talk about things, people and activities not currently happening. A child can
give his or her name and gender.
Children this age know about 1500 words. They can recall a
story while following along with pictures in a book. They can explain what
things do according to their purpose for example play dough is for making
shapes. They know the names of four to eight colours and point them out. They
can identify their city, birth date and the name of their parents. They are
able to answer the telephone properly. They can use irregular verbs in the past
tense such as went, caught.
Children become more social and have wider experiences. They
ask large amount of questions and will be able to talk about things in past and
future tenses with greater confidence. They will start looking for adult
approval and will be starting to learn how to read. They can understand about
sameness and different in various aspect of life. They can speak fluently and
able to make stories.
7 to 12;
By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language.
They would be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. At
this stage children will be developing and refining their skills at reading and
writing. They will be more able to think and discuss ideas. They will read to
themselves. They will take a lively interest in certain subjects by nine. Their
vocabulary will grow if adults introduce them with new words and new ways of using
language. They can speak fluently and can describe complicated happenings. They
can read out loud and know the different tenses and grammar.
12 to 19;
Young people will be selecting and taking GCSE and A levels.
They will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subject. This is
the stage young people want to feel like they belong. Most young people are
leaving school and thinking of their career path to take and university
choices. They will be able to focus on their area of strength and be able to
develop it more.
This is a time of maturing of the mind and behaviours as
young people develop more responsibility for their thoughts, words and actions
and start to think ahead to future occupations. Their logical thinking ability
is also maturing and they may enjoy practicing their new intellectual and
verbal skills through debaiting either
formally or informally.
Q; Describe with
example how different aspects of development can affect one another?
When it comes to different aspects of development there are
many example that can describe how it affect one a other.
1; If a child is less
developed in reading when it comes to children having reading time on the
carpet in groups they may feel uncomfortable and unable to form friendships due
to embarrassment and low self esteem. This will then affect their language and
social development. This can cause the child to feel lonely and angry at themselves
because they are not at the other children’s level of learning.
2; If a child
doesn’t like to share toys, this can cause a problem with social interaction as
they will find it hard to form friendships. The other children will try to
avoid the child that is unable to share, this can affect the emotional and
social development of the child who is unwilling to share as they will feel
lonely and neglected and even abandoned.
3; If a child is
overweight and obese he will struggle to do PE at school as he won’t have the
energy and will get tired very quickly. This can cause his classmates to be
annoyed with him for delaying the class due to his weight and they will bully
him for it. This would leave the child feeling very hurt, embarrassed and he will lose his confidence and self
esteem . this will then affect his physical, social and emotional development.
4; If a child is use
to having his way all the time such as eating his lunch whilst watching T.V and
when the child is at nursery and boundaries are in place this will cause the child to have temper
tantrums and become angry. This will affect his social, emotional and behaviour
development. Ashe will not understand why at home he can watch T.V and eat on
the sofa, but at nursery he has to sit with other children at the table and
eat. This will make him frustrated and angry.
5; If a child suffer
from a speech impediment such as a stutter, other children may find difficult
to understand them. This can result in limited interaction with other children,
resulting in feelings of frustration, annoyance and lack of confidence. This
may even affect other area of development as they can feel as though they can’t
achieve, possibly causing low self esteem.
6; If a child suffer
from depression can experience of loss of interest in social activities, work
and life. They may withdraw socially and can often separate themselves from
others, which in turn can have a detrimental effect on their ability to make
friends. Withdrawal from lessons can affect cognitive development, with
children having difficulties in their skills in reading, writing and problem
7; A child with
social anxiety disorder may cry a lot, freeze or have tantrums. They often fear
the school and classroom environment and avoid participation in school
performances. This can result in reduced communicational development, as they
may feel fear talking in groups, starting conversations, taking to authority
figures and speaking on the phone. They may also exhibit physical difficulties
due to fears of eating or drinking in front of people, resulting in
malnutrition, low self esteem and insecurity especially regarding performance
and body image which may lead to the development of eating disorders.
8; If a child has a
speaks foreign language as their first and family. Just came to UK to live,
this may lead to having language barrier. They may become shy, not very
communicative, isolated, which affects emotional and intellectual development,
further they may have difficulty making friends, which can weaken their self esteem, affecting social and behavioural development.